Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine <p><strong>Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine </strong><strong>ISSN</strong>: <a href="">2710-1479</a></p> <p>****************************************************************</p> <p><strong>Submit your manuscript to:</strong></p> <p>*****************************************************************</p> <p>The “Journal of basic and applied research in biomedicine” ISSN <a href="">2710-1479</a> was first published in 2015 as “Journal of basic and applied research”. Since 2019, the title of the journal was changed to “Journal of basic and applied research in biomedicine”. It is independent, international, double blind peer reviewed journal with a broad scope that cover all aspects related to biomedical sciences and human health. Two volumes are published every year and the manuscript is published in electronic formats as soon as it accepted. The journal is licensed under <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY 4.0)</a> International License and all published articles are freely available.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></p> <p>The journal is devoted to the advancement of research, delivery and exchange of scientific information that is in associated with human health and biomedical sciences. With your full cooperation and support, Journal of basic and applied research in biomedicine commits to observing timeliness and punctuality in the publishing of your article.</p> <p>Journal of basic and applied research in biomedicine cover all aspects related to biomedical sciences and human health. This includes all fundamental and molecular aspects of medical sciences and clinical investigation. Original researches reporting innovative idea for conquering human health problems are given high priority. It covers various fields of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing and allied health sciences. Also, nutritional and environmental health researches reporting significant impact toward human health is considered.</p> en-US (Haitham Qaralleh) (Haitham Qaralleh) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Biodegradation of Phenol: Mini Review <p>This paper is a comprehensive review related to the biological degradation of phenol by microorganisms. The aromatic compound, phenol or hydroxybenzene, is produced industrially or naturally. Many microorganisms that are able to biodegrade phenol have been isolated and at the same time, the metabolic pathways responsible for these metabolic processes have been determined. A large number of bacteria were studied in detail especially, pure cultures as well as the pathways of aerobic phenol metabolism and the enzymes involved. Phenol oxygenation occurred as the initial steps through phenol hydroxylase enzymes leading to formation of catechol, pursued by the splitting of the adjacent ring or in between the two groups of catechol hydroxyls. Thus, the physical and chemical environments plus the chemical structures that affecting biodegradation processes are important determining factors for combating of pollution. This nature of chemical structure for the other aromatic compounds is also a main decisive factor of biodegradability.</p> Razan Saraireh, Batool Asasfeh, Mutaz Saraireh, Kholoud Shiyyab, Rawan Shawawreh Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine Tue, 11 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bioactive Natural Medicinal Plants in South Indian Western Ghats and Their Pharmacological Importance <p>Awareness of traditional knowledge and medicinal plants can play a key role in the utilization and discovery of natural plant resources. Plants became the basis of medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide mankind with new remedies.&nbsp;Researchers generally agree that natural products from plants and other organisms have been the most consistently successful source for ideas for new drugs. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the south Indian medicinal plant products has been used by people to treat various health ailments.</p> M. Tamizharasi, R. Rajila, D. Beula Shiny, J. Vijila Jasmin, T. Kumaran Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Thu, 13 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Structure and Process Evaluation of Cold Chain Management and Routine Immunization Services in Rural Western Gujarat <p>Maintenance of cold chain points are vital for preserving potency of vaccines for immunization of children and thereby averting vaccine preventable diseases in the community. Cold chain handlers should have sufficient knowledge and skills related to cold chain equipment handling and immunization practices.&nbsp; The present study aims to evaluate maintenance of cold chain facilities at primary health care centers (PHCs), related logistics and observation of Mamta Day (Immunization Day). The observations include knowledge and practice of health workers about immunization activities, their communication skills, training status etc. Methods: There are total 31 Primary Health Centers in Jamnagar district, out of which, we decided to include 50% (15) of primary health centers and observed their cold chain, and Immunization day at a subcentre or Anganwadi centre of the selected PHC to assess the quality of immunization services. We included equal number of cold chain points from each block of the district to make it representative of entire district. <strong>Results: </strong>&nbsp;Average population served by a cold chain point is 21985. Vaccine related logistics like cold boxes, vaccine carriers etc. were adequate in all facilities. All cold chain equipments were placed as per standard guidelines. The posts of medical officers and pharmacists were vacant in almost one fourth of cold chain points and they were run on deputation from other facilities. The knowledge and skills of health workers related to immunization practices were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion: &nbsp;We observed that routine immunization program was implementing in the district satisfactorily. The posts of medical officers and pharmacists need to be filled up at the earliest for smooth functioning of immunization program in primary health centres.</p> Pithadia Pradeep R, Shah Viral R, Makwana Naresh R, Parmar Dipesh Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Mon, 31 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Retrospective Study of Biochemical Markers and Risk Factors in Obese and Non-Obese Adolescence <p>Obesity is a chronic disease defined by an excessive accumulation of body fat that represents health risks, being considered now a days the major public health problem worldwide. Obesity is characterized as a low-grade inflammatory disease due to the variety of pro-inflammatory adipokines secreted by adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue. This inflammation is characterized by macrophage infiltration and expression of inflammatory adipokines, which are related to insulin resistance, blood pressure, and vascular endothelium alterations. These alterations are closely related to development and progression of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, including paediatric patients. Obesity considered now as&nbsp; one among &nbsp;the major global issue affecting young adults. Rapid changes in sedentary lifestyle choices were the risk factors for obesity including unhealthy diet patterns, expending time in front of TV &nbsp;and lacking physical activity etc. The present study aimed for correlating the risk factors of obesity with healthy groups among the adolescent population. And the result were recorded with significant level of elevation in most of the parameters &nbsp;in cases than control and the significance was represented as student’s test. (p&lt;0.001).</p> D. Jayarajan, V. Abirami Copyright (c) 2020 D. Jayarajan devadass pakkiam, V. Abirami Tue, 08 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 COVID-19: An Emerging Rapidly Evolving Situation <p>Coronaviruses are large group of enveloped viruses with unsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA as genetic material. These are collection related&nbsp;RNA viruses&nbsp;that cause diseases of economically important vertebrate viz.&nbsp;mammals&nbsp;and&nbsp;birds. In humans, these&nbsp;viruses&nbsp;cause&nbsp;respiratory tract infections&nbsp;that can range from asymptomatic to life threatening. The asymptomatic disease include very similar to some cases of the&nbsp;common cold, while other deadly varieties can cause&nbsp;SARS,&nbsp;MERS, and&nbsp;COVID-19. The SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) and MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) are zoonotic origin and extremely pathogenic coronaviruses that can cause localized and worldwide outbreak. The novel Coronaviruses, COVID-19 posses a unique morphology. &nbsp;The outer surface of the virus bearing surface spike and reveled like crown hence being named corona virus. The mode of replication of the virus is very unique as it replicate through the generation of nested set of viral mRNA. The HCoV (Human coronavirus) cause respiratory complication with asymptomatic to life threatening outcomes. From the past 15 years we have witnessed appearance of two zoonotic, extremely pathogenic human corona viruses the: &nbsp;SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.</p> Bhairav Prasad, Neha Prasad Copyright (c) 2020 Bhairav Prasad, Neha Prasad Wed, 23 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Sparse Matrix Approach in Neural Networks for Effective Medical Data Sets Classifications <p>In this paper, a hybrid intelligent system that consists of the sparse matrix approach incorporated in neural network learning model as a decision support tool for medical data classification is presented. The main objective of this research is to develop an effective intelligent system that can be used by medical practitioners to accelerate diagnosis and treatment processes. The sparse matrix approach incorporated in neural network learning algorithm for scalability, minimize higher memory storage capacity usage, enhancing implementation time and speed up the analysis of the medical data classification problem. The hybrid intelligent system aims to exploit the advantages of the constituent models and, at the same time, alleviate their limitations. The proposed intelligent classification system maximizes the intelligently classification of medical data and minimizes the number of trends inaccurately identified. To evaluate the effectiveness of the hybrid intelligent system, three benchmark medical data sets, <em>viz.</em>, Hepatitis, SPECT Heart and Cleveland Heart from the UCI Repository of Machine Learning, are used for evaluation. A number of useful performance metrics in medical applications which include accuracy, sensitivity, specificity. The results were analyzed and compared with those from other methods published in the literature. The experimental outcomes positively demonstrate that the hybrid intelligent system was effective in undertaking medical data classification tasks.</p> Sagir Masanawa, Hamza Abubakar Copyright (c) 2020 Sagir Masanawa, Hamza Abubakar Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 2019 Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) in Balochistan, Pakistan <p><strong>Background: </strong>The unprecedented outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) drastically spread worldwide. The study was aimed to articulate the findings of a descriptive and clinical characteristic, also to access the potential risk factors link with the spread of COVID-19. <strong>Method: </strong>The COVID-19 cases reported through April 30, 2020, were extracted from Balochistan’s COVID-19 Electronic Dashboard. All cases from March to April 2020 were included. The results of the laboratory finding as well as data acquired through COVID-19 Dashboard were cleaned; descriptive exploratory analysis and chi-square were calculated to demonstrate association using Epi- Info. <strong>Results: </strong>A total of 1381 patient records extracted and screened. Of these, 1218 suspected cases and 1049 confirmed cases contributed to the analysis. Among confirmed cases, 77% (811) were male. The most affected age group was 60 – 69 years (attack rate 1.90/10,000), mean age was 36 ±17.11 SD with age range 2 months-94 years. District Quetta 82% (864) and district Pishin 5% (55) remained the epicenter for high attack rates. Among confirmed cases, a total of 14 deaths occurred for an overall Case fatality rate of 1.33%. The epi surge was peaked around March 19, April 5, and April 24, 2020. Among high-risk personals, those who had contact with infected individuals’ showed a high association of 97% (323/333) than without any contact 87% (221/254). Those who had travel history showed a prevalence of 86% (87/101) than in those who did not 59% (60/104) while those admitted in hospital with comorbid conditions showed a prevalence of 70% (26/37) than in those who did not 13% (6/46). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>COVID-19 epidemic has spread rapidly in the province. A series of multidimensional public health interventions, a cost-effective surveillance system, and the adoption of safe working practice, awareness sessions are necessary to control the COVID-19 outbreak. </p> Qurat ul Ain, Ehsan Larik, Abid Saeed, Zubair Khosa, Muhammad Arif, Ambreen Chaudhry, Tamkeen Ghafoor Copyright (c) 2020 Qurat ul Ain, Ehsan Larik, Abid Saeed, Zubair Khosa, Muhammad Arif, Ambreen Chaudhry, Tamkeen Ghafoor Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Powerful Healing Effect of Traditional Medicine for The Treatment of Certain Chronic Diseases: One of The Means To Better Defeat Covid-19 <p>Health is one of the greatest blessings a person can have, and it is priceless. Traditional medicine has always been and remains an important practice for human health. In all regions of the world, popular knowledge has acquired its own experiences in traditional medicine which are passed on from generation to generation and which have generated wonders in terms of innovation of effective traditional remedies which bear the fruit of the healing. After the release of the novel Covid-19 virus, several research studies have focused on the study of medicinal plants that fall under traditional Chinese or Indian medicine or others around the world, to try to put in place remedies against this virus. Chronic Diseases kill millions of people around the world every year. These diseases cause a weakening of the immune system in people who have them. As a result, health experts have classified those affected by these diseases as being among the most at risk in the event of contracting Covid-19. It is therefore obvious that preventing and combating chronic diseases helps to better cope with this Virus or others that may arise in the future. In this humble work, we have tried to make a small contribution that could help fight Covid-19. In the light of actual practices supported by bibliographic research, we try to recall some orientations of natural treatments against certain widespread chronic diseases namely: type 2 diabetes; arthritis and weak immune system (particular case of a low white blood cell count). The results of these treatments are very promising for healing and recovery; which opens doors of hope for those who are affected. Moreover, this subject deserves serious investigations through Research for a better consolidation of these therapies.</p> Hafida Rahal-Bouziane Copyright (c) 2020 Hafida Rahal-Bouziane Sat, 28 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Minireview <p>In principle, nanoscience focus on the understanding of the structure, physical and chemical properties of nano size objects. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are both recent and active ongoing branch of science includes multi interdisciplinary sciences. On the other hand, nanotechnology considered as the invested outcomes of the obtained fundamental knowledge about nano objects in various commercial, industrial, environmental and medical sectors. All nano scale matters regardless of their nature referred to as nano-objects were the prefix ‘nano’ mean one millionth of millimeter size. Due to their nano size and high surface area, metal nanoparticles exhibits unique and novel physical and chemical properties compared to their macro scale counterparts. They are considered as very interesting and popular antimicrobial agent with wide spectrum activity against the variety of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Three main methods were routinely used for metal nanoparticles formation that are chemical, physical and biological approaches. As eco-friendly, cheap and safe synthesis approach without the use of toxic chemicals and free of resulted hazardous byproducts several extracellular and intracellular biological methods using bacteria, fungi, plants or their extracts were reported that known collectively as green nanotechnology</p> Alaa Alnaimat, Intesar Aljamaeen Copyright (c) 2020 Alaa Alnaimat, Intesar Aljamaeen Sat, 28 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Epidemiological Distinctive Survey Of Children With Acute Respiratory Tract Infections In Some Selected Hospitals Of Katsina Metropolis, Nigeria <h3>Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) in children under the age group of five (5) years are serious infections, which prevent the normal breathing function in the child's system. The infection usually begins as a viral infection in which it enters the child's system through the nose to the trachea (windpipe) and down to the lungs. This study aimed to identify the distinctive risk factors associated with the respiratory tract infection in which later it can lead the infection to become acute and find out the easy ways toward preventing the infections. The study was performed within the period of six (6) months during the rainy season between the periods of April to September using the human subjects under age group of five (5) years. The data analysis was done in the Bioconductor R package, statistics p-value with associated B-value were obtained from the distribution of the moderated t-statistic after the adjustment for multiple testing with a significance level of ((? 0.05) using LIMMA method. Pvclust method was also used to generate thousands of bootstrap samples by randomly sampling elements of the data and then compute graphic hierarchical clustering on each bootstrap copy. Distinctive risk factors of (ARTI) were identified, such as malnutrition (MNT), indoor air pollution (IAP), Crowdy and dirty environment (CDE), and parental education (PE) which shows significant influence on the infection. But indoor air pollution (IAP) with the highest level of significant influence to the infections. It is recommended that parents having children should be enlightened by the health personnel experts through different media communication channels and other channels in order to avoid leaving in dirty, crowdy and unventilated environment and to feed from recommended diets with their children.</h3> Umar Shittu, Idris Zainab-L, Umma Sada, Bashir Aliyu Copyright (c) 2020 Umar Shittu, Idris Zainab-L, Umma Sada, Bashir Aliyu Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000