Volume (2), Issue 3, (2016): 215-407

Siva, E. (2016). Tourist Places at Kanyakumari District in Tamilnadu. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 215-216

Abstract:

Tourism is a fast growing industry which has vast and inexhaustible potentials to enhance national income, foreign exchange reserves and opportunities of employment to the growing millions or the countries. The size and economic significance of travel and tourism have attracted the attention of many countries in actively promoting tourism as a way to stimulate their economies. The world tourism organization has recognized the potential of tourism sector for the purpose of poverty alleviation by increased job creation; consequently, many developing countries are improving their tourism planning and developments approaches. The objective of this research article is to study the tourist places in kanyakumari district. .

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Sathishbabu, S. Vijayakarthick, M. Ramesh, S. Sivaraman, E. (2016). Real Time Implementation of Model Reference Controller in a Spherical Tank Process. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 217-220

Abstract:

In non linear process, control of process parameters is one of the important problems particularly, long dead time and unstable process. In this paper, a Model Reference Controller is implemented to improve the control performance for a spherical tank level process .The control method is combined with IMC and PD feedback where PD feedback is designed by Maclaurin series. The process dynamics are described by the transfer function model by utilizing the step test technique. Experimental results are furnished to illustrate the effectiveness of the Model Reference controller.

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Raju, G.N., Sai, K.B., Naveen, K.T., Nadendla, R.R. (2016). Green Synthesis & Biological Evaluation of Novel Benzimidazole Derivatives as Antianxiety Agents. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 221-225

Abstract:

Benzimidazole is one of the most important heterocyclic compound, having varied biological activities and still of great scientific interest now a days. They are widely found in bioorganic and medicinal chemistry with application in drug discovery. In the present study some novel benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized under green synthesis by solvent free conditions by using catalytic amount of silica supported sodium hydrogen sulphate according to the scheme. All the synthesized benzimidazole derivatives have been characterized by using elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and further supported by Mass spectroscopy. Purity of all the compounds has been checked on thin layer chromatographic plate and HPLC technique. All the synthesized compounds were tested for their anti anxiety and neurotoxicity activities by elevated plus maze test in mice. Test compounds and diazepam was administered intraperitoneally in antianxiety study at dose of 2 mg/kg. Compounds BZ-6 & BZ-7 showed highest antianxiety activity compared to diazepam and did not show neurotoxicity in rotarod test. All the compounds exhibited moderate to significant antianxiety activity.

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Naveen, K.T., Sai, K.B., Chandana, K. (2016). Green Synthesis, Biological Evaluation of Newer Benzothiazole Derivatives. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 226-231

Abstract:

Benzothiazole is one of the most important heterocyclic compound, weak base, having varied biological activities and still of great scientific interest now a days. They are widely found in bioorganic and medicinal chemistry with application in drug discovery. In the present study some novel benzothiazole derivatives were synthesized under green synthesis by microwave irradiation method by using Phenyliodoniumbis-trifluoroacetate (PIFA) in ethanol according to the scheme. All the synthesized benzothiazole derivatives have been characterized by using elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and further supported by mass spectroscopy. Purity of all the compounds has been checked on thin layer chromatographic plate and HPLC technique. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity by estimating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by adopting serial dilution technique and analgesic activity was examined by using the hot-plate method. All the compounds exhibited moderate to significant antimicrobial and analgesic activities.

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Gnanwa, M.J., Konan, H.K., Yapi, A.Y.D.P., Kouadio, J.P.E.N. Dué, E.A. Kouame. L.P. (2016). Study of thermal stability of two acid phosphatases from breadfruit (Artocarpus communis) seeds: kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 232-239

Abstract:

The thermal stability of acid phosphatases ACP1 and ACP2 from breadfruit (Artocarpus communis) seeds was investigated by studying the effect of heat treatment over a range of 55 to 75 °C. Thermal inactivation of each enzyme, evaluated by loss in activity, was apparently followed by first-order kinetics with k-values comprised between 0.0139 ± 0.0005–0.0620 ± 0.0001 and 0.0117 ± 0.0002–0.0362 ± 0.0004 min-1 for ACP1 and ACP2, respectively. D and k-values decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing temperature, indicating faster inactivation of ACP1 and ACP2 at higher temperatures. Ea and Z-values were estimated to 69.19 ± 2.71 kJ/mol and 31.55 ± 1.05 °C for ACP1, 52.25 ± 1.94 kJ/mol and 41.84 ± 2.06 °C for ACP2. Thermodynamic parameters were also calculated. All the results suggest that both acid phosphatases are relatively resistant to long heat treatments up to 60°C.

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Ogodo, A.C., Ugbogu, O.C., Ekeleme, U.G., Nwachukwu, N.O. (2016). Microbial Quality of Commercially Packed Fruit Juices in South-East Nigeria. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 240-245

Abstract:

The thermal stability of acid phosphatases ACP1 and ACP2 from breadfruit (Artocarpus communis) seeds was investigated by studying the effect of heat treatment over a range of 55 to 75 °C. Thermal inactivation of each enzyme, evaluated by loss in activity, was apparently followed by first-order kinetics with k-values comprised between 0.0139 ± 0.0005–0.0620 ± 0.0001 and 0.0117 ± 0.0002–0.0362 ± 0.0004 min-1 for ACP1 and ACP2, respectively. D and k-values decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing temperature, indicating faster inactivation of ACP1 and ACP2 at higher temperatures. Ea and Z-values were estimated to 69.19 ± 2.71 kJ/mol and 31.55 ± 1.05 °C for ACP1, 52.25 ± 1.94 kJ/mol and 41.84 ± 2.06 °C for ACP2. Thermodynamic parameters were also calculated. All the results suggest that both acid phosphatases are relatively resistant to long heat treatments up to 60°C.

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Kumar, K., Singh, R., Kumar, A. (2016). Thermomagnetic convection in stratified ferrofluids permeated with dusty particles through a porous medium. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 246-254

Abstract:

In the present note, the stability problem of an incompressible dusty stratified ferromagnetic fluid is investigated through a porous medium when the fluid layer is subjected to vertical magnetic field intensity. The governing nonlinear equations are linearized using perturbation technique and the cases of exponentially varying stratifications for various physical parameters are discussed. The system is found to be stable for stable stratification in both the absence and presence of magnetic field. For unstable stratification, the system has both stabilizing and destabilizing effects in the presence of magnetic field under certain conditions, whereas in the absence of magnetic field, the system has only destabilizing effect. The variations in the growth rate with respect to kinematic viscosity, medium porosity, medium permeability, square of Alfvén velocity and suspended particle parameter are also shown analytically.

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Sai, K.B., Naveen, K.T., Chandana, K. (2016). Green Synthesis, Biological Evaluation of Novel Benzoxazole Derivatives. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 255-260

Abstract:

Benzoxazole is one of the most important heterocyclic compound, having varied biological activities and still of great scientific interest now a days. They are widely found in bioorganic and medicinal chemistry with application in drug discovery. In the present study some novel benzoxazole derivatives were synthesized under green synthesis by microwave irradiation method by using Phenyliodoniumbis-trifluoroacetate (PIFA) in ethanol according to the scheme. All the synthesized benzoxazole derivatives have been characterized by using elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and further supported by Mass spectroscopy. Purity of all the compounds has been checked on thin layer chromatographic plate and HPLC technique. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity by estimating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by adopting serial dilution technique and analgesic activity was examined by using the hot-plate method. All the compounds exhibited moderate to significant antimicrobial and analgesic activities.

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Akpan, I., Obotowo, I. (2016). Kinetic Potentials of the Effect of Ethanol on Calcium Content of Ashed Palm Bunch (Elaeis guinensis). Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 261-265

Abstract:

The effect of ethanol on the calcium content of ashed palm bunch (Elaeis guineensis) was studied. The palm bunch residue was subjected to pre-treatment processes such as drying, grinding and ashing. The calcium content of the filtered extract of the ash was determined titrimetrically and a concentration of 73.33 mg/l of calcium was recorded. Kinetic studies were carried out on the mixture of local ethanol and the ash extract and the effect of ethanol on calcium concentration was monitored using titrimetric method at 10 minutes interval. The ethanol led to a gradual decrease in the concentration of calcium with increase in time, the rate constant value was 0.67 mgdm3min-1 and half life of 54.97 minutes. Analysis of the kinetic data showed that the reaction was zeroth order as it fitted into the zeroth order integrated rate law. The average pH of the reaction mixture was alkaline (10.57).

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Shashi, A., Rana, N. (2016). Ultrastructural Study of Muscle Fibers in Experimental Fluorosis. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 266-271

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on the ultrastructure of skeletal muscle. Wistar albino rats were treated with 300 and 600 mg NaF/ kg bw/day respectively, for 40 days . Group I (Control) was given double distilled water ml/kg bw/day orally for the same period. In control rats, the sarcoplasm was filled with myofibrils and some mitochondria. The sarcomeres showed sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounded by Z- line, A and I-bands. The middle of the sarcomere was marked by M-line situated within lighter H-band. Oval myonucleus with finely dispersed chromatin throughout the nucleoplasm was present. In rats treated with 300 mg NaF/ kg bw/day skeletal muscle showed disorganized myofibrils and disruptions in the continuity of plasma membrane. The undulating sarcolemma and many small electron-lucent vacuoles in the myofibers were noticed. The myofibrils showed disturbed contractile structure with loss of sarcomere organization and indistinguishable. A-band, I-band , and irregular and distorted Z-line with disruption of myofilaments. Irregularly shaped markedly shrunken myonuclei with clumped and marginated chromatin were prominent. The cristae rich mitochondria were larger than those in control. The hypercontraction of myofilaments and mitochondrial swelling were observed in rats given 600 mg NaF/ kg bw/day. The sarcoplasmic reticulum was irregularly dialated forming large electron-lucent areas. The myofibrilar pattern could no longer be distinguished . There was loss of integrity of the basal lamina and plasma membrane, and inflammatory cells were present around the damaged site.

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Hijawi, S.I., Hussein, A.M., Mohammad, Z.K.M. (2016). Prevalence of Impacted and Transmigrated Canine among Palestinian People -Jenin District. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 272-276

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of impacted maxillary canines in a Palestinian population. The study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the panoramic records of 1683 patients. Statistical analysis was used to examine potential differences in the distribution of impacted maxillary and mandibular canines stratified by gender, location (left or right), unilateral and bilateral position, and presence of transmigration. It was found that the incidence of impacted canines was (2.9%). Of the 54 impacted canines, 30 were in females and 24 were in male patients. Ages were in the range of 16-47. Of these subjects, 38 (84.44%) had unilaterally impacted maxillary canines, while 7 (15.55%) had bilateral impactions. One case of transmigrated canine was recorded among the whole sample. As has been noted the incidence of impacted canines in the sample Palestinian population was (2.9%) which is comparable to the findings from previous studies.

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Malhotra, V., Jha, O.P. Jha, J.P., Gupta, S. (2016). Correlation of Body Age with anthropometric parameters in students. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 277-280

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of impacted maxillary canines in a Palestinian population. The study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the panoramic records of 1683 patients. Statistical analysis was used to examine potential differences in the distribution of impacted maxillary and mandibular canines stratified by gender, location (left or right), unilateral and bilateral position, and presence of transmigration. It was found that the incidence of impacted canines was (2.9%). Of the 54 impacted canines, 30 were in females and 24 were in male patients. Ages were in the range of 16-47. Of these subjects, 38 (84.44%) had unilaterally impacted maxillary canines, while 7 (15.55%) had bilateral impactions. One case of transmigrated canine was recorded among the whole sample. As has been noted the incidence of impacted canines in the sample Palestinian population was (2.9%) which is comparable to the findings from previous studies.

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Stennett, D., Wheatley, A., Dilworth, L., Asemota, H. (2016). Optimal dosage determination of a hypocholesterolemic bitter yam proprietary preparation in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic mice.. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 281-290

Abstract:

Coronary heart disease, a condition associated with dyslipidemias including hyperlipidemia and low HDL-C levels, has been an increasing problem in the developing world. Conventional treatment for hyperlipidemia often present with unfavourable side effects, leading to the need for development of drugs from natural products. The hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic properties of the Jamaican bitter yam have previously been demonstrated however consumption at a high dosage presents with various adverse effects. This study is therefore geared towards the determination of an optimal dosage for the consumption of a proprietary preparation made from this yam species. Hypercholesterolemic mice were fed the preparation at various dosages (4, 2, 1, 0.5%) for 3 weeks after which they were phlebotomized then euthanized. Organs were stored at -80°C until required for analysis. The optimal dosage for supplementation, which resulted in significant decreases in serum cholesterol and oxidative stress without eliciting adverse effects, was found to be 2%. The results from this study points to the need for future in-depth studies involving dietary supplementation at the 2% supplementation level.

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Ramkanth, S., Thiruvengadarajan, V.S., Gopinath, C. (2016). Formulation and Development of Orodispersible Tablet of Baclofen by Effervescent Method. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 291-294

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to develop orodispersible tablets of Baclofen for improving patient compliance, by overcoming the difficulties in swallowing, with the prime objective of arriving at cost effective product by effervescent method. In the effervescent method, mixture of sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid (each of 12% w/w concentration) were used along with super disintegrants, i.e., treated agar, sodium starch glycolate (SSG), Cross Carmellose Sodium (CCS) and Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC). The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, in vitro dispersion time. The hardness and friability test reports revealed that the tablets had a good mechanical strength and resistance. The formulation containing high concentration of MCC, SSC and CCS and mixture of effervescent emerged as the best formulation based on in vitro drug release characteristics. The results of this work suggest that orodispersible tablets of Baclofen with rapid disintegration time, fast drug release and good hardness can be efficiently and successfully formulated by effervescent method.

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Nworie, F.S, Nwabue, F.I, Elom N.I, Eluu, S.O. (2016). Schiff bases and schiff base metal complexes: from syntheses to applications.. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 295-305

Abstract:

The synthesis and applications of Schiff bases and their metal complexes have attracted much interest and concern in all aspects of chemistry and related fields such as biology and physics. As versatile ligands, Schiff bases are formed when carbonyl compounds (aldehydes or ketones) are condensed with amines. Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been used in quantitative analysis, photometric analysis, flourometry, as potentiometric sensors, in solvent extraction, as solid phase extraction sorbent, in high performance liquid chromatography, in antimicrobial studies, as plant growth regulators, as insecticides, as catalyst, in antifertility and enzymatic activity, as dyes, polymer and other miscellaneous applications. There are limited papers on the applications of Schiff bases and their metal complexes. This review summarizes the preparation of Schiff bases as donors and stabilizers of metals in high oxidation state and their applications.

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Ajibade, Y.E., Adetunji, M.O. (2016). Profitability Analysis of Women in Cassava Enterprises in Ogbomoso Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 306-312

Abstract:

The study was carried out to analyse the profitability of women in cassava enterprises in Ogbomoso agricultural zone of Oyo- State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were meant to describe the socio-economic characteristics of women, evaluate the costs and returns for cassava tubers and cassava products, estimate the profitability ratio and identify the problems encountered by women in cassava production and processing. A multistage sampling method was used to select samples from Oriire, Ogo-Oluwa and Surulere Local Government Areas in Ogbomoso Agricultural Zone and the sample size was one hundred and sixty respondents. Structured questionnaire were used to elicit information from the selected respondents and it was structured in line with the objectives of the study. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, budgetary and profitability ratio techniques. Average total cost of producing cassava tubers and processing cassava tubers were N57,697.50k per hectare and N599,929.70k per month respectively. Average total cost for combining production and processing of cassava tubers was N1,500, N650.00k per annum. The net returns for women cassava producers and those women that combined cassava production and processing were N221,052.00k and N7,289,950.00k per annum respectively. The benefit cost ratio (BCR) for the women cassava producers, processors and those women that combined production and processing were 4.83,1.08 and 5.86 respectively. These showed that the enterprises were profitable. The combination of cassava production and processing by women was found to be most profitable.

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Adenowo, T.K., Dare B.J. (2016). Digital and Palmer Dermatoglyphic; A Bio-Indicator for Intelligence Quotient. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 313-319

Abstract:

Dermatoglyphic attributes once formed in the womb remains unique and persists throughout life for individuals until decomposition after death in the tombs. This research work aimed at finding the relative associations that exists between the dermatoglyphic parameters and intelligence level among the medical students of Bingham University, Karu Nigeria with ultimate purpose of using dermatoglyphic characteristics as bio-indicators for selection of categories of students into good, average and weak academic performances. A total number of 65 medical students (30 male and 35 female students) who were in 3rd year were selected for this study, students were categorised according to their academic performances in the Anatomy courses into the good, average and weak at the end of the academic session. Dermatoglyphic printings including the finger and palm prints were taken using Indian ink method. Ulnar loop pattern was prevalence in all categories of students (Right hand: good 72%, average 58%, weak 40%, Left hand: good 72%, average 50%, weak 51% ) and higher symmetrical arrangement was observed in both hands (right and left hands) among the good student, however, no incidence of arch pattern was recorded among the good set of students. More than two different sets of patterns were observed to be distributed in each hand among the weak category of student and also asymmetrical arrangements were significant (P<0.05) on both hands among the weak. Reduction in the ridge counts, total ridge counts, absolute ridge counts and palmer tri-radial angles measured (<ATD, <DAT, <ADT) were significant (P<0.05) among the weak and less significant (P<0.05) in the average group of students. Transversality of the palmer ridges was the same in all the categories of students (good, average and weak students) as revealed by the main line index. This observed dermatoglyphic parameters may be used in the selection of students according to categories for education counselling and close monitoring especially in private institutions of learning.

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El-Taher, S.M.M., Hafez, E.I., Ismail, E.A. (2016). Comparative study for Utilization of machines in the Flow-Shop Scheduling Problems. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 320-328

Abstract:

Scheduling is the procedure of generating the schedule which is a physical document and generally informs the happening of things and demonstrate a plan for the timing of certain activities. The flow shop problem is one of the most widely studied classical scheduling problems and reflects real operation of several industries. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the performance of four methods when it is used to solve flow shop scheduling problems with minimization makespan. The four heuristics methods are Johnson, Palmer, CDS and Gupta methods. In this work, an attempt has been made to solve the flow shop scheduling problem for comparative study for utilization of machines in the flow-shop scheduling problems among pervious methods. A simulation study has been made to evaluate the performance of the four method under consideration based on two performance measures makespan and utilization of machine , the results has been proved that the Palmer and CDS heuristic methods show the minimum value of average of makespan and average utilization of machine when it compared with other heuristic methods.

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Ajibade, Y.E. (2016). Spatial Integration Analysis of Rice Markets in the Six Geo-political Zones of Nigeria. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 329-344

Abstract:

The attainment of inter-regional price equilibrium is of immense importance in an economy to achieve the marketing and pricing objectives of a commodity. Since Nigeria has witnessed an established growing demand for rice as propelled by rising per capita consumption, the need for a well integrated rice marketing system arises due to high demand. This study therefore, described growth rate in retail prices, determined long-run and short-run price equilibrium among different pairs of spatially separated markets in Nigeria for imported and local rice varieties. Monthly retail prices of both rice varieties from January 2001 to December 2010 (120 months/state) were obtained for six geo-political zones of Nigeria from the statistical database of National Bureau of Statistics. Three (urban) markets were randomly selected from each zone, making eighteen markets across the six geo-political zones. Analytical techniques used were Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) unit root test, Johansen multivariate co-integration technique, Vector Error Correction Modelling (VECM) and Granger causality test. The findings revealed that for the imported rice markets, Ebonyi recorded the highest growth rate in retail prices (70.17%) and (85.52%) in 2004 and 2008, respectively. However, for the local rice markets, Bayelsa recorded the highest growth rate of 86.05% in 2003, followed by Lagos (72.01%) in 2005 and Bauchi (45.85%) in 2007. The results of ADF unit root test revealed that price series variables were non-stationary at levels but became stationary after the first-differencing for imported and local rice varieties at 5% level of significance. Also, about 85.00% of the imported rice markets exhibited long-run price equilibrium while the local rice markets exhibited 71.90% long-run price equilibrium. The imported and local rice markets were well spatially integrated with 83.00% shock in imported rice prices being transmitted to the local rice prices due to policy implications. The VECM results revealed moderate short-run price equilibrium among the imported rice markets while there was weak short-run price equilibrium in the local rice markets. The results of Pair-wise Granger causality test for imported and local rice market links in the same state showed that ten market links exist between imported rice and local rice markets in bi-directional (two- way) causality. The study showed that price signals were well transmitted across spatially separated markets for local rice varieties, thus indicating integration of rice markets in Nigeria between January 2001 and December 2010.

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Moustafa, Y.M.M. and Abdelwahab, M.A. (2016). Evaluation of Four Novel Imported and Egyptian Curly and Non-Curly Leafed Parsley Genotypes for Yield and Essential Oil Composition Under The Egyptian Sandy Soil Growing Conditions. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 345-352

Abstract:

Four novel parsley genotypes (Moskurl 2 Petra, Moskurl 2 KRA USA, Gewone Dai 3 Rial 10, and Bravour) were imported from Netherlands to be planted and evaluated along with the Egyptian local variety “Egyptian” in the sandy soil under the Middle Egypt growing conditions. Three of the four introduced genotypes are curly-leafed varieties and one is non-curly leafed “Gewone Dai 3 Rial 10” as well as the Egyptian is a non-curly leafed variety. The aims of this experiment were to evaluate and study the growth characteristics (e.g. plant height, plant fresh and dry weights and fresh yield of leaves/m2) and some chemical properties of these genotypes (e.g. TSS and essential oil contents, essential oil composition and leaves content of chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids) after adaptation and growing during the two successive winter seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. All introduced genotypes grew very well under these conditions and showed a very acceptable vegetative growth, profitable yield and high levels of volatile oils rich in anticancer and flavor responsible compounds and their horticultural and chemical proprieties were compared with those of the Egyptian local variety. The obtained data are very promising for Egyptian parsley growers to produce these new imported varieties in order to meet the increasing demand of parsley fresh and dry processed products with different shapes and different tastes of the Egyptian and foreign markets.

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Eze, E.D., Tanko, Y., Tende, J.A., Ehinomhen, U.A. (2016). Effects of Lycopene on Liver Markers and Glucokinase Activity in Experimentally-induced Diabetes Mellitus Rat Model. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 353-362

Abstract:

The study examined the effects of lycopene on markers of liver function and glucokinase activity in experimentally-induced diabetes mellitus rat model. To accomplish this, experimental diabetes were induced by single intra-peritoneal administration of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg b w) into animals. Diabetic and normal animals were randomized into the following groups: Group I: Normal control rats that received (0.5 mL) of olive oil; Group II: Diabetic control animals that received (0.5 mL) of olive oil); while Group III- VI received (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of lycopene and 2 mg/kg b w glibenclamide) respectively. All treatments were given orally once daily for four weeks. There was a significant (P < 0.05) and progressive reduction on blood glucose concentration, with non- significant (P > 0.05) increase in serum insulin level when compared with diabetic control group. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activity of liver glucokinase enzyme as well as a significant (P < 0.05) decrease on the activities of serum liver enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) in diabetic animals administered with lycopene when compared with those of diabetic control animals. Following available evidence from our findings, lycopene may be suggested as a promising dietary agent in the management of diabetes and hepato-cellular damage that usually occurs in diabetes mellitus.

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Desheva, G. (2016). Effects of Genotype, Environment and their Interaction on Quality Characteristics of Winter Bread Wheat. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 364-372

Abstract:

Grain quality is a complex character that depends on a number of traits, and the individual contribution of each trait varies depending on specific reaction to environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of genotype, environmental, and genotype x environmental interaction on quality characteristic of 16 wheat genotypes as well as to analyse the relationships between quality traits. The results of two-way analysis of variance showed that the effect of genotype, environment and genotype x environment interaction were significant (p≤0.001) for the investigated physical characteristics of grain. The strongest individual influence for thousand kernel weight, test weight and vitreousness had genotype. The interaction genotype x environment had stronger influence on the variance for the crude protein (44.98%) and the lysine (34.93%) than genotype and environment effects. Sources of variation genotype and genotype x environment interaction (year) had almost the equal influence on the variance of wet gluten content and bread making strength index. Genotype demonstrated the strongest influence on the sedimentation value and dry gluten content. The genotype x environment interaction influenced in the largest rate on the variance of gluten weakness. Protein content showed significant positive correlation with wet gluten content (0.676), gluten weakness (0.646) and dry gluten content. Vitreousness correlated positively with sedimentation value (0.541) while the test weight significantly correlated with dry gluten content. The results of this study can be used as selection criteria to increase grain quality in bread wheat in the region.

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Ezzat, S.M., Mohamed, R.H., Ismail, E.A., Rashwan, M.M. (2016). Stochastic Programming for Selection Variables in Cluster Analysis. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 373-378

Abstract:

Cluster analysis is one of the most important techniques in the exploratory data analysis; it is goal to discover a natural grouping in a set of observations without knowledge of any class labels. Variable selection has been very important for a lot of research in several areas of application. The study suggested a stochastic programming approach which selects the most important variables in clustering a set of data. The study evaluates the performance of the stochastic programming suggested approach for selection variables in cluster analysis used numerical example. The suggested stochastic programming approach selects the most important variable in cluster analysis simultaneously and the results are satisfied.

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Kulkarni, G.V., Angadi, M.M., Sorganvi, V.M. (2016). A Study on Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Utilization of Maternal Health Care Services in Urban Community. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 379-381

Abstract:

Background: Even though the MMR dropped from 212 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2007-09 to 178 in 2010-12, India is behind the target of 103 deaths per live births to be achieved by 2015 under the United Nations-mandated Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).As per WHO, Three crucial factors understanding maternal deaths. Firstly lack of access and utilization of essential obstetric care. Secondly low social status of women in developing countries. Thirdly too much physical work together with poor diet also contributes to poor maternal outcomes. Out of these three factors, access and utilization of health care is the most crucial factor which is capable of reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to evaluate socio demographic correlates and barriers of maternal health care utilization in the urban community. Objective: To know the factors influencing the utilization of maternal health care services. METERIAL &METHODS; Study design: Cross sectional study. Area of study: UHTC Kalal galli. Bijapur (Urban field practice area)Participants: All married woman in the age group of 15-45 years who were either pregnant at the time of interview or delivered within last one year were included in the study. Study period: January to March 2015Sample size: 134 mother Methods: Interview technique using pre tested Proforma. Statistical analysis: Percentage and chi-square test. Result: Utilization of maternal health services was found more among literate (70%) mothers compared to illiterate mothers. Utilization of maternal health services increased with increase in economic status. Major reasons for non-utilization of maternal service were not having a delivery complication in the past. (57%) Conclusion: The result reveals that educational level of women, exposure to mass media, birth order and wealth index are significant predictors in explaining the use of maternal health care services. There is a need of motivation and enhancing IEC activities for bringing desirable changes in the health care practice of the mother.

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Khodjaniyazov, Kh.U., Makhmudov, U.S., Kutlimuratov, N.M. (2016). Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of (E)-9-(N,N-Dimethylaminomethylidene)-8,9-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5(7H)-one. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 382-385

Abstract:

2,3-Trimethylenepyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one reacts with the Vilsmeier reagent to give α-Dimethylaminomethylidene derivative. X-ray structure analysis has been carried out for the product of the reaction.

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Akpan, I.A., Obotowo, I.N. (2016). Kinetic Potentials of the Effect of Ethanol on Iron Content of Ashed Cow Liver. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 386-389

Abstract:

The kinetics of the effect of ethanol on iron content of ashed cow liver was investigated. The work revealed that the cow liver contained a very high quantity of iron. The effect of alcohol distilled from palm wine was tested kinetically on the measured concentration of the iron in the ashed cow liver. The depletion in the concentration of the iron was monitored spectrophotometrically at specific time intervals. The analysis showed a gradual decrease in the concentration of iron in the ashed cow liver extract. The initial iron content in the ashed cow liver was 22.6130 mg/l. After 10 minutes of reaction of the local ethanol with the cow liver extract, the quantity of the iron reduced to 7.5443 mg/l. at the end of 90 minutes, the concentration of iron further reduced to 5.3624 mg/l. the half life, rate of reaction, rate constant and order of the reaction were determined. The pH of the reaction mixture was almost constant throughout the time interval of measurement. The average pH was measured to be 6.52, being weakly acidic. The results showed that ethanol reduced or destroyed the concentration of iron present in a biological system.

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Ramadan, Kh.S., Alshamrani, S.A. (2016). Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Salvadora persica extracts. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 390-395

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are founded in many health diseases and often generated from biological reactions or external factors. Natural antioxidant based on the prevention or treatment of complicated diseases has attracted an important deal of research interest. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoid contents and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assays for evaluation of Salvadora persica (SP) in vitro antioxidant analysis of aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of roots were determined. It was found that the aqueous water gave the highest total extract yield followed by ethanol and methanol. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of different phytochemicals in water, methanol and ethanol extracts. Aqueous extract dispalayed the largest total phenolic contents followed by ethanolic and methanolic extracts while methanolic extract showed the higher flavonoids content than the ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging method revealed that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts have good scavenging ability compared to gallic acid which used as positive control. there were strong negative significant correlations between hydrogen scavenging and phenolic contents (-0.369), but not with the contents of flavonoids. Also, the results revealed that there was a strong negative correlation between flavonoids and total phenolics. The results clearly indicate that root aqueous extract of Salvadora persica is having effective antioxidant activity.

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El-Desouki, R.A.M. (2016). New insights on the role of vitamin D in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Review Article. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(3): 396-407

Abstract:

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and vitamin D deficiency are both disorders of high prevalence in the world. Evidence supports an association between low vitamin D levels and risk for T2DM, and its complications. There remains insufficient evidence to suggest whether treatment of low vitamin D can prevent or improve T2DM. Aim: this review will focus on the current understanding of the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of T2DM, and questioning if vitamin D supplementation can improve the pancreatic function, thus providing a better glycemic control or slow down its complications. Conclusion and recommendation: deficient vitamin D levels increases the risk of developing T2DM. This finding highlights the need for conducting large-scale health screening to identify those at risk of DM using vitamin D blood level assessment. However, more studies are required to ascertain the effect of vitamin D supplementation in T2DM patients.

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