Volume (2), Issue (4), (2015): 408-611

AL-Bial, A., Alazazie, S., Shami, A., Aldoss, A. (2016). Genetic Analysis of Growth Traits in White Boni Sheep Under the Central Highlands Region of Yemen. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 408-413

Abstract:

The data were collected from 1992 to 2009 of White Boni sheep maintained at the Regional Research Station in the Central Highlands of Yemen. Data were analyzed to study the growth related traits and their genetic control. The least square means for body weights were 2.26±0.67, 11.14±0.46 and 19.21±1.25 kg for birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), six-month weight (WM6), respectively. The pre-and post-weaning average daily weight gains (ADG1 and ADG2) were 106.04±4.98g and 46.21±8.36 g/ day. Significant differences associated with the year of lambing were observed in body weight and weight gain at different stages of growth. Males were heavier and had a higher weight gain than females at almost all stages of growth and differences tended to increase with age. Single-born lambs had a distinct advantage over those born in twin birth at all stages of growth. The lambs in the dam’s second to fourth parities were generally of heavier weight and higher daily weight gain than those in other parities. The heritabilities of all body weights, weight gains at different stages of growth were moderate (0.11-0.43). The phenotypic and genetic correlation among the different body weights were positive and high. The genetic correlations of the pre- and post-weaning average daily gains with body weights were hight to moderate, except BW with ADG2.

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Shafe, M.O., Eze, E.D., Ubhenin, A.E., Tende, J.A. (2016). Effects of Aqueous Tuber Extract of Ipomea batatas on Cardiac Enzymes, Lipid Profile and Organ Weights in Wistar Rats. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 414-417

Abstract:

Ipomea batatas (I. batatas) commonly called Sweet potato are cultivated for food in more than 100 countries; the tuber is used as food without recourse to its toxic implications. Therefore, this research was designed to evaluate the effects of aqueous tuber extract of I. batatas on some organ weights, cardiac enzymes and lipid profile in Wistar rats. Twenty (20) male Wistar rats were divided into four (4) groups, each group consisting of five (5) animals. Group 1: was administered with distilled water while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated with 200,400, and 800 mg/ kg b.w doses of the extract of I. batatas respectively. The rats were sacrificed 24 h after treatment for twenty one (21) days. Serum obtained was used for analysis of the concentrations of creatine kinase (CK-MB), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein activity. Administered I. batatasextract at doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg kg-1 resulted significantly (P < 0.05) to increased mean weight of the body and organ weights (lung, liver and heart) of the rats respectively. There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in weight of testis but the effect on weight of seminal vesicle and epididymis was not significant (P > 0.05). There was reduction in the levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol, but this effect was not significant (P > 0.05). Administration of the extract at doses of 200, and 800 mg/kg b w significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the serum creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase activity. These findings may probably suggest the cardio-protective effects of aqueous tuber extract of I. batatas at doses tested.

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Ajibade, A.J., Akinola, O.B. (2016). Assessment of Morphological Changes and Antioxidant Status in Neocerebellar Cortical Layers of Adult Wistar Rats Following Monosodium Glutamate Exposure. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 418-427

Abstract:

Some effects of monosodium glutamate that is commonly used as food additive and flavor enhancer were evaluated on histological, and biochemical parameters on neocerebellar cortical structures in adult Wistar rats following monosodium glutamate induced toxicity. Forty eight adult male Wistar rats weighing between 70-130g (8-10 weeks old) were randomly separated into four groups, each containing twelve rats. The rats in group A were regarded as the controls and they received only distilled water during the treatment period. The rats in group B, C and D were MSG-treated rats. The Wistar rats in group B, C and D received respectively 2g/kg, 4/kg and 6g/kg body weight of MSG orally once duty for 28 consecutive days. The rats were euthanized on 29th day of the treatment. The cerebellum were carefully dissected out before removing halves of the neocerebellar cortical tissues for the preparation of the homogenate samples for assessment of oxidant and antioxidant parameters, Lipid peroxidation( LPO); malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO). The remaining neocerebellar and neocerebral cortical samples were fixed immediately in 10% buffered formal saline for routine histological procedures for evaluation by light microscopy. The results from tissue analysis on oxidant and antioxidant parameters indicated a dose-dependent, significant increased (P<0.05) in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) in the neocerebellar cortical tissues in MSG-treated rats compared with controls. Conversely, the cortical SOD, CAT and GSH decreased significantly (P<0.05) in MSG-treated rats compared with controls. This histological findings from the MSG – treated rats demonstrated some atrophic and neurodegenerative changes in the cortical neurons. Some neocerebellar Purkinje cells appeared shrunken, pyknotic and degenerative coupled with vacuolization of the neuropile or stroma of the cortex. Conversely, the neocortical sections from the control rats appeared normal as the cortical neurons showed regular outlines. This study concluded that prolonged exposure to MSG may result in neocerebellar cortical damage which might be due to oxidative stress induced by excitotoxicity of MSG and consequently the cerebellar functions might be compromised.

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Sorte, K.R., Thakare, A.P., Sawalkar, S.N. (2016). Trustworthy Approach for Online Social Networks using Data mining. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 428-431

Abstract:

Online Social Networks is an active & important research area in the recent years. It is a platform to build social relations among people who share similar interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. Social interactions among users are constructed basically on the trust. Social trust implies that users behave according to the expectation of other users, are trustworthy and expect trust from other users. As two users interact with each other frequently, their relationship strengthens & trust evolves based on their experience. The objective of the project is to develop a secure social networking with decision support system to identify trustworthy friends. We need to identify trustworthy people in order to protect user’s important information from being misused. We define trust relationships by how much we trust the content posted or broadcasted by our friends. Depending on the past user interactions and profile similarity, we measure the trust values. Trust values are maintained by user & are calculated according to their own experiences & information from social relationships contacts. In this project, we can find trustworthy friends based on ratings review, based on which user can make decisions & provide access permissions to trustworthy users only.

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Joseph, S. A., Fajoye, S.O., Odiba, O., Akinluwade, K.J. Oduola, M.O., Adetunji, A.R. (2016). Generation Cycle of Jebba Hydro Power Plant and its Effect on the National Power Grid. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 432-436

Abstract:

This paper presents the trend of power generation for the Jebba hydro-power plant and its effect on the Nigerian National Power Grid (NPG). Since electricity is used on a 24-hour basis, it is requiredto bestable and constantly available.However, it has been observed that there is usually a shortfall between the actual and available generated output power of hydro-power plants. Four years of power generation data (2003 – 2006) was analyzed to establish this trend.The data was acquired from hourly, daily, weekly and yearly inspection reading sheets of synchronous generators. The components of the data used include; the average available capacity (MW), the average actual generation (MW), the number of operational hours in a month, the total outage period (hours), the in-service period (hours), the reservoir computed inflow (m3) and the total water discharge (m3). It was observed that the power plant is only able to generate about 75% of its installed capacity for only two months (October and November) but less at the other months of the year. Positive correlations exist between the reservoir computed inflow (m3), total water discharge (m3) and the average actual generation. Tables and statistical charts were used to analyze the station’s performance, and recommendations for improved performance was made. This study has established a trend of power generation which can be used for power generation planning for Nigeria to enable a constant supply of electricity.

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Raju, G.N., Sai, K.B., Naveen, K.T., Nadendla, R.R. (2016). Synthesis, Characterization and Anticonvulsant Activity of Novel Benzyl-6-Chloro Indole Carboxylate Derivatives. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 437-441

Abstract:

Indole is one of the most important heterocyclic compound, weak base, having varied biological activities and still of great scientific interest now a days. They are widely found in bioorganic and medicinal chemistry with application in drug discovery. In the present study some novel indole carboxylate derivatives were synthesized under green synthesis by microwave irradiation method according to the scheme. Methyl 6-chloro-1Hindole-5-carboxylate was treated with benzyl chloride in presence of CS2CO3 in dry DMF. Then methyl 1-benzyl-6-chloro-1H-indole-5-carboxylate was treated with oxalyl chloride in dry DCM and different secondary amines to get methyl 1-benzyl-6-chloro-3-[(N,N-dialkylamino)(oxo)acetyl]-1H-indole-5-carboxylates derivatives (IND-1 to IND-10). The synthesized newer indole carboxylate derivatives have been characterized by using elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and further supported by Mass spectroscopy. Purity of all the compounds has been checked on thin layer chromatographic plate and HPLC technique. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity by maximal electroshock method (MES) by using phenytoin as standard at a concentration of 30 mg/kg. The anticonvulsant effect of the newly synthesized compounds was assessed by absence or reduction of hind limb tonic extensor phase. Among the synthesized derivatives compounds IND-5 and IND-10 were found to be the most potent compounds in the series.

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Naveen, K.T., Sai, K.B., Raju, G.N., Chandana, K., Nadendla, R.R. (2016). Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic evaluation of Novel Indole Derivatives. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 442-447

Abstract:

Indole, the bicyclic ring system consists of pyrrole ring fused with benzene ring. Although indole moiety is very small but is fascinated by scientists because of the diverse biological activities by not only indole but its various substituted derivatives as well. In the present study some novel indole derivatives like 6-Chloro-3-[(N,N-diethylamino)(oxo)acetyl]-1-benzyl-N-aryl-1H-indole-5-carboxamide derivatives (IC-1 to IC-10) were synthesized according to the scheme. The synthesized novel indole derivatives have been characterized by using elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and further supported by Mass spectroscopy. Purity of all the compounds has been checked on thin layer chromatographic plate and HPLC technique. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for anti-inflammatory and antipyreticactivities. All the compounds exhibited moderate to significant anti-inflammatory and antipyreticactivities.

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Bhagat, D.S., Katariya, M.V., Takwale, A.D., Bhadke, A.D., Pawar, R.P., Kendrekar, P.S. (2016). [Emim]OH ionic liquid catalyzed efficient synthesis of Polyhydroquinolines derivatives via Hantzsch reaction as green approach. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 448-454

Abstract:

Ionic liquid [Emim]OH is reported an efficient catalyst for one pot multi component synthesis of Polyhydroquinolines via the Hantzsch reaction. The mild reaction conditions, short reaction times, high yields and the remarkably low toxicity of ionic liquid makes this methodology greener and efficient.

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Olimova, M.I., Elmuradov, B.Zh. (2016). About the Direction of Selective Alkylation and Cyanoethylation of Benzimidazoles, Benzothiazoles and Benzopyrimidines. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 455-459

Abstract:

Selective alkylation and cyanoethylation of 2H(methyl) benzimidazoles (1, 2), benzimidazolin-2-one (3) and -2-thione (4), benzothiazolin-2-thione (5) and 2-methyl-benzopyrimidin-4-one (6, 2-methylquinazolin-4-one) have been studied. It was found that in the case of alkylation of 2H(methyl)benzimidazoles and benzimidazolin-2-thione by aliphatic halogen carboxylic acid esters and / or amides reaction leads to the formation of selectively N3- and S-alkyl derivatives. Interaction of benzothiazolin-2-thione and 2-methyl-benzopyrimidin-4-one with acrylonitrile takes place mono-cyanoethylation, but in the case of benzimidazolin-2-one takes place di-cyanoethylation reaction. It was revealed that formation of mono- and / or di-substituted products 7-13 dependence on the structure of starting compounds and the reaction conditions (reaction temperature and time, ratio of reagents). It should be noted that the obtained compounds are important synthons for further investigations. The structure of synthesized compounds (7-13) was confirmed by IR- and 1H NMR-spectroscopy.

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Kashid, P., Jadhav, A., Aloorkar, N. (2016). Formulation and Evaluation of Biopolymer Based Buccal Film of Diclofenac Sodium. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 460-463

Abstract:

Buccal drug delivery gives easier and safe method of drug administration because in case of toxicity it can be terminated by simply removing the dosage form from buccal cavity. The buccal film of diclofenac sodium was prepared for systemic delivery by solvent casting method using sodium alginate and Ocimum Basilicum mucilage. Then film was evaluated for parameter like physical appearance, surface texture, mass uniformity, thickness, folding endurance, drug content and in vitro drug release. The results of evaluation test reveals that prepared film was smooth, have adequate folding endurance. The film shows percentage cumulative drug release of 67.57% at the end of 4 hrs.

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Zakirova, R.P., Elmuradov, B.Zh., Khidyrova, N.K., Sagdullaev, Sh.Sh. (2016). Scientific and Applied Research of ICPS for Agriculture: Mini Review. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 464-469

Abstract:

The scientific and applied achievements of Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances (ICPS) on the development of products for agriculture for the last years are summarized. Also included different research areas, working to find new promising drugs based on natural, heterocyclic compounds and their synthetic analogues. In this mini review many preparations: plant growth regulators, fungicides, herbicides, which are created in ICPS and recommended for application in agriculture, have been discussed.

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Nasrullayev, A.O., Tosheva, N.A., Elmuradov, B.Zh., Eshmuratova, A.A., Azimova, Sh.S. (2016). Synthesis and In Vitro Investigation of Insecticidal Activity of Some Tricyclic Quinazolines and Their Thioanalogues. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 470-475

Abstract:

Hydrochlorides of 2,3-trimethylene-3,4-dihydroquinazoline (deoxypeganine, 3) and 2,3-trimethylene-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-one (deoxyvasicinone, 4), 2,3-trimethylene-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-thione (deoxyvasicinthione, 5), 2,3-tetramethylene-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-thione (mackinazolinthione, 7), 2,3-pentamethylene-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-thione (9) were synthesized and their insecticidal activity have been studied. It was found that compounds 3 and 4 have low cytotoxicity, but increasing of quantity of methylene groups in positions 2 and 3 in the series of the thio-analogues 5→7→9 leads to the increasing of cytotoxic activity of them. “Structure-activity” relationship among the tricyclic quinazoline-4-thiones (5, 7, 9) was revealed. It should be noted that the compounds, consisting reactive thiocarbonyl group are important starting substances for further investigations. The obtained results shows that six-membered and seven-membered quinazolin-4-thiones - 7 and 9 in concentration 1 µg/ml are inhibited cell growth by 59% and 65%, respectively compared with the control, indicating that these compounds can serve as a basis for the development of the new insecticides. Structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by the physical methods of research.

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Ismailova, D.S., Ziyaev, A.A., Elmuradov, B.Zh., Toshmurodov, T.T., Bobakulov, Kh.M., Zakirova, R.P. (2016). Targeted synthesis and in vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activities of 2-alkylthio-5-(p-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 476-479

Abstract:

Selective alkylation of 5-(p-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-thione with alkyl halides have been studied. It was revealed that alkylation goes on more polarized thiogroup in position 2 and corresponding 2-alkylthio-1,3,4-oxadiazoles were obtained in high yields. Structure of novel synthesized compounds confirmed by physical methods of research as UV-, IR- and 1H NMR-spectroscopy. Primary in vitro biological activity have been studied and it was found that all obtained S-alkyl derivatives have weak activity against bacteria Xanthomonas malvacearum and fungicidal activity against fungi Fusarium oxysporum.

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Sunday, E., Israel, A.U. (2016). Preliminary Assessment of the Generative Potential of Crude Oil Samples From Three (3) Offshore Exploration Oil Wells in Nigeria. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 480-484

Abstract:

Oil generating potential of virgin crude oil samples procured from wells within the Southern part of Nigeria was employed in this study. The work aimed at characterizing the organic matter, determining the quality, analyzing the quality status as well as highlighting the source input for the purpose of deducing the hydrocarbon potential of the crude oil sample. The crude fractions were eluted using n-hexane for Saturated Hydrocarbons (SHC), methyl-benzene for Aromatic Hydrocarbons (AHC), benzene / ethyl acetate (3:1) for Vanadyl Porphyrins (VOP), dichloromethane / n-hexane (2:3) for Nikel Porphyrins and methanol / dichloromethane (2:1) for Nitrogen, Sulphur and Oxygen compounds (NSO). The Yorla oils had the lowest VOP / NIP ratios and NSO values which ranged from 0.1 – 0.8 with an average of 0.46 ± 0.20 and 0.1 – 0.3 with an average of 0.16 ± 0.1 respectively. This indicated that the Yorla oil was more matured and has a higher quality as compared to the Usari oils and Oloibiri oils which was slightly degraded. The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) of the samples was relatively high, this implies that the source rocks of the oils is Type 1 Kerogen and therefore, is oil prone. The very high values of the SHC/AHC ratios of the oil showed that the oils are not degraded and have high quality. It can be concluded that the sediments of the oils posses a hydrogen rich organic matter. The source rocks of the oils have the potentials to generate oil if given sufficient maturity time.

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Umar, I., Auwal, L., Fatima, I., Grace, M.G., Esther, B. (2016). Ecological Survey of Phanerophytes on Federal College of Education (Technical) Gombe Campus, Gombe-Nigeria. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 485-491

Abstract:

For effective teaching-learning process in any institution of learning, suitable conditions of both teaching materials and environmental condition are of paramount importance. Environmental condition plays a vital role, positively or otherwise, in effective teaching-learning process. This study surveyed phanerophytes on federal college of education (Technical), Gombe campus. Four sites were selected using deliberate sampling technique namely, Administrative block, Students’ hostels, Classes area and Staff quarters. Results obtained identified 14 different species of phanerophytes belonging to 11 families with the highest record of species diversity at Staff quarters. Higher values of relative density, basal area, relative dominance and importance value indices were recorded on Azadirachta indica and Parkia biglobosa. Importance value indices suggested Azadirachta-Parkia type of vegetation complex on the college campus. Introduction of exotic species in afforestation program was recommended for FCET, Gombe so as to increase the vegetation cover of the college campus among other recommendations.

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Pandey, B. (2016). Isolation of Microorganisms from Different College Canteens of Bhilai. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 492-494

Abstract:

A food borne diseases are caused by the consumption of contaminated foods. It would seem that a food borne microbial pathogens, microbial toxic product, poisonous chemical causes food borne illness. Many microorganisms present, spoil and contaminate food in home, restaurants, canteens etc. in the present study bacterial and fungal strains were collected from different college canteens of Bhilai and isolated by various morphological characteristics, biochemical identification etc. Disc diffusion method was used to study antibiotic resistant capability against infectious microorganisms. S. aureus has shown resistance against Amoxicillin, Oxacillin, Ciprofloxin but sensitive to Doxycycline, Erythromycin. Bacillus subtilis has shown resistant against Oxacilli and Penicilin and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has shown resistant against Gentamycin . Some fungus isolates were also isolated and identified which are harmful to human health. Present study emphasizes presence of microorganism at different sites of college canteens, due to which the society is suffering with serious health hazards. There is need to study more sites of the city in a future to decrease food contamination, food spoilage and food illness of human being.

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Zeidan, A.S.A., Hafez, E.I., Abd El-Raziq, E. (2016). Statistical Interval for Data Envelopment Analysis. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 495-502

Abstract:

The techniques of data envelopment analysis (DEA) were largely studied. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a methodology for measuring the relative efficiencies of a set of decision making units (DMUs) that use multiple inputs to produce multiple outputs. Conventional DEA models assume that input and output values should be certain (crisp data). However, the observed values of the input and output data in real-world situations are sometimes inexact, incomplete, vague, ambiguous or imprecise. Some researchers have proposed various methods for dealing with the imprecise and ambiguous data in DEA in the context of fuzzy (interval) data. In this paper, a statistical method based on arithmetic operations to solve fuzzy (interval) data envelopment analysis models (FDEA) can be improved. The suggested approach transforms the original data (crisp data) into interval data; in the form of upper and lower frontier data. Then, by using these upper and lower frontier data; the interval DEA efficiency scores can be achieved. This approach is applied on the real-life data and the results of application are efficient.

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Odiba, O. (2016). Rain Height Distribution Over Some Stations in Tropical Nigeria Based on Trmm Precipitation Data. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 503-507

Abstract:

To be able to estimate appropriately the fade margin required for an optimum performance of earth-space communication links, some meteorological factors that must be considered includes among others: the annual average of the zero degree isotherm (ZDI) and the rain height. It is desirable to have information about these parameters at specific locations but only the ITU-R recommendation is used right now over Nigeria and the locations where specific information is not available. In this paper, two years of precipitation data (TRMM 2A23) from the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite’s precipitation radar has been analyzed to establish the rain heights over some selected stations in the different geographical regions of Nigeria. The result gotten were compared with recommendation ITU-R P.839 and this showed that the value of rain height quoted by the ITU-R does not reflect the real values over these stations as these parameters are location dependent and so cannot be used to estimate the correct fade margins required for satellite communication. We have also compared the year – to – year variability of the rain height and observed only a slight variability over the two years studied.

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Yuwono, R., Trenggamayunahla, I. (2016). Effect of Wi-Fi Wave Frequency 2.4 GHz to Water Content, Fat and Protein of Chicken Egg Based on Electromagnetic Waves Barrier. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 508-511

Abstract:

Chicken Egg is one of the most food consumption in public because of it's low price but high nutrition. In this research, chicken eggs placed 0,25 meter from wi-fi router and given electromagnetic waves barrier such as zinc and wood. The function of wi-fi router as radiating adder of wi-fi radio wave frequency 2,4 GHz. From the research,with the value of electromagnetic field is 18.24 ⨯ W/m, the highest reduction of water contect, fat dan protein is given from sample of chicken egg that placed 0.25 meter from wi-fi router without electromagnetic waves barrier. The value of reduction are 5.629 gram; 2.815 gram; 2.9 gram or 11.7%; 38.38%; 35.14%. Meanwhile, the sample of chicken eggs that placed 0.25 meter from wi-fi router and given electromagnetic waves barrier such as zink and wood, the higher reduction of water content, fat and protein is in wood. the value of water content, fat and protein are 3.0745 gram; 1.811 gram; 2.218 gram or 6.319%; 24.69%; 26.87%..

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Bhattacharya, C., Pandey, B., Sarkar, A.K. (2016). Study of Lipase Producing Bacterial Strains from Oil Contaminated Soil. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 512-515

Abstract:

Lipase producing bacterial strains were isolated from oil contaminated soils and grown on nutrient agar medium containing 1% (w/v) Tween-20. The isolate showing maximum activity was identified by following Berger’s manual. Three bacterial strains such as Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Clostridium sp. were isolated from oil contaminated soil sample. Different media parameters were optimized for maximal enzyme production. Peak lipase activity was observed glucose as carbon source, peptone as nitrogen source, at pH 7.0 and temperature at 40°C.

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Dhafina, A., Hasiah, S., Daud, M.Z. (2016). Natural Dye Based-Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: A Review. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 516-521

Abstract:

Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is a third generation of solar cells which possess low cost of materials and fabrication process compared to silicon based solar cells added with reasonable efficiency (η). Ruthenium (Ru)-based dye DSSC shows constant high photovoltaic performance until now, but the resource of noble metal Ru is scarce, hence their costly production. Natural dyes are interesting candidates to be applied in DSSC as an alternative dyes. Natural dyes can be produced by extraction of pigments using simple procedures from flowers, leaves, and fruits. This resource not only abundance but also easy to be attained. This paper give an overview on recent researches of the application of natural dyes in DSSC.

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Abd El-Wahab, M.A., Toaima, W.I.M., Hamed, E.S. (2016). Effect of different planting locations in Egypt on volatile oil of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) plant . Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 522-533

Abstract:

This work was carried out during the two successive seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014) to investigate the effect of different planting locations on quantity and quality of Pelargnium graveolens L. volatile oil. The experiment was conducted at five different locations in Egypt in newly reclaimed lands as follows: North Sinai Governorate (El-Qantara Sharq), El-Monofia Governorate (El-Sadat City), Matrouh Governorate (Siwa Oasis - Khamisa Village), Beni-Suef Governorate (West of Semsta Center) and Giza Governorate (El-Bahariya Oasis - Mandisha Village). Results indicated that all studied parameters such as essential oil percentage, essential oil yield per feddan, essential oil chemical composition and essential oil quality factors (citronellol content, geraniol content and citronellol : geraniol ratio) were affected and varied according to planting location and harvesting time. The best locations for production of geranium oil were El-Qantara Sharq followed by El-Sadat City and then Beni-Suef Governorate locations.

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Naydenova, Y., Vasileva, V. (2016). Analysis of Forage Quality of Grass Mixtures – Perennial Grasses with Subterranean Clover. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 534-540

Abstract:

The analysis of forage quality of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (pure swards) and their mixtures with three subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) subspecies in the followed relations: grass + Trifolium subterraneum ssp. brachycalicinum (50:50%); grass + Trifolium subterraneum ssp. yaninicum (50:50%); grass + Trifolium subterraneum ssp. subterraneum (50:50%); grass + Trifolium subterraneum ssp. brachycalicinum +Trifolium subterraneum ssp. yaninicum + Trifolium subterraneum ssp. subterraneum (25:25:25:25%) was performed. The field experiment was carried out at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria (2011-2013). It was found that Trifolium subterraneum ssp. brachycalicinum in mixture with cocksfoot improves principal chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of forage biomass dry matter. The energy feeding value (Feed units for milk and Feed units for growth) was the highest for the mixtures of cocksfoot with Trifolium subterraneum ssp. brachycalicinum. The protein feeding value (Total digestible protein, PDIN, PDIE) significantly increased for all kind of cocksfoot – subterranean clover mixtures. Their forage quality was improved in comparison with the same mixtures of tall fescue. The principal chemical composition of forage obtained from cocksfoot – subterranean clover mixtures was more balanced - in vitro digestibility, net energy and protein feeding value were found be higher.

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Langa, H.B., Auwal, T.M., Auta, A., Jimoh, O.H.I. (2016). Determination of Gross Alpha and Beta Activity in Water: (A Case Study of Gombe Metropolis). Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 541-544

Abstract:

A study on the “Determination of Gross Alpha and Beta activitity in Water” in Gombe metropolis was carried out. Nuclides are unstable elements that are spontaneously emitting nuclear radiation in an attempt to attain the nuclear structure of the stable elements. Humnan exposure to these radiation beyond certain limit can cause serious health problems. Radionuclides can be found in air, water and soil. This study investigated the gross alpha and beta activity in water from Gombe metropolitan. Gross alpha and beta activity is a measure of the total amount of natural radioactivity in a water sample attributable to the radioactive decay of alpha or beta particles emitted from natural decay series. The gross alpha and beta activity is used to create assurance on the level of nuclear contamination in water for drinking and other domestic use. The World Health Organization (WHO) standard for alpha and beta activity in water 100 Bqm-3 . The resuts obtained in this study varies between 0 – 0.045 Bqv/I and 0.659 – 11.580 Bq/I for alpha and beta radiation respectively. Comparison of these results with the WHO standards shows that the gross alpha and beta activity in the water in Gombe metropolitan is far beow WHO satndards. This indicates the safety of the water in the study area for drinking and other domestic applications.

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Langa, H.B., Malgwi D.I., Sale, S. (2016). Correlation of Meteorological Parameters to Study the Climatic Conditions of Gombe State, Nigeria. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 545-551

Abstract:

This paper investigated the climatic change of Gombe State metropolis from 2004 to 2014. Data were collected from Gombe State meteoroligical center, Gombe State News Bulletin, and Meteorological unit of Gombe State International Airport. Correlaion was carried out between the meteorological parameters and the years. The data was organized and analysed using Spearson correlation coefficient and ANOVA ananlysis. The paper hereby suggests that the effect of climate change to humanity can be controlled or alleviated if concrete steps that are environmentally friendly are taken.

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Nasrullaev, A.O., Turgunov, K.K., Zhurayev, B.B., Kadyrov, A.A., Elmuradov, B.Zh. (2016). Synthesis and Study of Influence of the Methylene Group Quantity on the Structural Behavior of Polymethylene-Quinazolinethiones. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 552-555

Abstract:

6,7,8,10-Tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-10-thione (4), 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-11H-pyrido[2,1-b] quinazoline-11-thione (5), and their seven-membered homologue - 6,7,8,9,10,12-hexahydroazepino[2,1-b]quinazolin-12-thione (6) have been synthesized by interaction of corresponding quinazolones (1-3) with phosphorus pentasulfide. First time the comparable X-ray crystal structure analysis of polymethylenequinazolinethiones (4-6) are studied. It was revealed some regularity of the structure of obtained thiones 4-6 by XRD and identified the conformational state cycloalkanoic rings and the reactivity of the methylene protons at C-6.

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Abakedi, O.U., Asuquo, J.E. (2016). Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium in Acidic Medium by Ethanol Leaf Extract of AzadirachtaIndica. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 556-560

Abstract:

The inhibition of aluminium corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution by ethanol leaf extract of Azadirachta indica was studied by weight loss and thermometric methods. Results obtained show that Azadirachta indica leaf extract leaf extract is a good inhibitor of aluminium corrosion in HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increased with increase in Azadirachta indica leaf extract concentration but decreased with increase in temperature. The inhibition efficiencies by both weight loss and thermometric methods followed the same trend. The calculated thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption of Azadirachta indica leaf extract onto aluminium surface occurred spontaneously and conformed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

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Ajibade, A.J., Akinola, O.B. (2016). Histomorphometric Findings on the Neocerebellar Purkinje Cells and Layer V Cerebral Pyramidal Cells Following Monosodium Glutamate Exposures. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 561-570

Abstract:

This study assessed some effects of monosodium glutamate which is one of the most abundant naturally occurring amino-acids that is frequently used as a seasoning material on histomorphometry on neocerebellar Purkinje and layer V neocerebral motor pyramidal cells in adult Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats weighing between 70-130g (8-10 weeks old) were randomly separated into four groups, each containing twelve rats. The rats in group A were regarded as the controls and they received only distilled water during the treatment period. The Wistar rats in group B, C and D received respectively 2g/kg, 4/kg and 6g/kg body weight of MSG orally once duty for 28 consecutive days. The rats were euthanized on 29th day and the whole brain and cerebellum were carefully excised, weighed and immediately fixed in 10% buffered formal saline for histological procedures for evaluation by light microscopy. RESULTS: The results of the total brain and cerebellar weights did not show any significant difference (P > 0.05) between the MSG – treated and control rats. However, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the relative total brain and relative cerebellar weights between the MSG – treated and control rats. Morphometric findings showed significant differences in the transverse diameters of neocerebellar Purkinje and layer V neocerebral pyramidal cells between the MSG – treated and control rats. The transverse diameters of Purkinje and pyramidal cells were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in MSG-treated rats compared with controls. Similarly, the neocerellar Purkinje cell and layer V pyramidal cell densities were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in MSG – treated rats compared with controls. Additionally, the silver stained sections showed normal Purkinje and pyramidal cells with regular outlines and the processes penetrating the parenchyma in control sections while, the MSG-treated sections showed morphological evidence of neuronal loss and dead neurons. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that prolonged exposure to MSG may result in neocerebellar and layer V neocerebral cortical damage and neuronal degeneration and shrinkages that might be due to oxidative stress induced by neurotoxicity of MSG and consequently the motor cerebral and cerebellar functions might be compromised.

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Nigam, P., Gidwani, B., Kaur, C.D., Dhongade, H. (2016). Phytochemical Screening and Pharmacological Activity of Seed Extract and Seed Oil of Lagenaria siceraria. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 571-576

Abstract:

The present study includes detailed aspects of seeds of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley used as medicinal plant. The Lagenaria seeds contain steroidal moieties like avenasterol, codisterol, elesterol, isofucasterol, stigmasterol and Legenin, a ribosome inactivating protein(RIP) isolated from seed shows various pharmacological activity. Antioxidants consist a group of vitamins, minerals and enzymes that have health enhancing effects. Antioxidants terminate the chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates before they do harm to our bodies. Antibacterial agents are inhibitory chemicals employed to kill micro-organisms or prevent their growth.Antianxiety agent a pyschotropic medication involves functional category of drugs useful in the treatment of anxiety and able to reduce anxiety at dosage that not cause excessive sedation.The elevated plus maze is a widely used behavioral assay for rodents and it has been validated to assess the anti-anxiety effects of pharmacological agents.An increase in open arm activity reflects anti-anxiety behavior.

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Mahmoud, K.M., Taha, S.S. (2016). Batch and flow injection spectrophotometric determination of procaine-HCl using diazotization-coupling reaction. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 577-583

Abstract:

This paper involves batch and flow injection spectrophotometric determination of procaine-hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations. These methods were based on the diazotization reaction of procaine-HCl with sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid to form diazonium salt, which is coupled with 8-hydroxyquinoline in alkaline medium to form orange-pink water soluble azo dye that was stable and has a maximum absorption at 509 nm. In batch method Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of (0.8 - 8.0 µg/mL) and detection limit of 0.12 µg/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9954 and a molar absorptivity of 2.0814x104 L mol-1cm-1. The flow injection analysis (FIA) system was applied for determination of procaine-HCl. The calibration graph is linear in the concentration range of (2.0 – 50 µg/mL) with detection limit (0.75 µg/mL) and correlation coefficient of (0.9927). The precision and accuracy of both methods were checked by calculating relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error (E %) for two different levels of concentration.

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Yuwono, R., Bakhri, A.A. (2016). Effect of 2.4 GHz WiFi Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Radiation on Green Bean’s Growth. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 584-587

Abstract:

In this research, access points are placed near the green bean’s seed to identify the effect of 2.4 GHz electromagnetic waves to green bean’s growth. There are 3 groups of green bean’s seed, one is positioned near one access point, another is positioned near two access points, and the last is positioned near 3 access points. For the control treatment, another sample group is placed in area without WiFi access, with 30cm distance and 6 x 24 hours times elapsed. The result shows that samples with 63 mV/m electric field strength that comes from 3 WiFi access points could grow till 8.6 cm, the samples with two access points with its electric field strength 63V/m could grow until 8.8 cm, and samples with one Wi-Fi access point with electric field strength of 0.792 mV/m could grow until 9 cm. As for the controlling samples, it could grow until 9.5 cm. From the result, we can conclude that samples will grow slower when they are affected by the electromagnetic wave radiation. We assumed that the radiation of 2.4 GHz electromagnetic waves disturb the performance of the green bean’s growth.

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Traoré, M. J., Koné, B., Kobenan, K. C., Konan, K. F., Kouamé, R. N., Yao, G. F., Zadi, F., Yao-kouamé, A. (2016). Wheat Agromorphology Characters as Affected by Fertilizers in Southern Humid Forest of Côte d’Ivoire: Exploring cations effect on wheat growth in an inherent marginal ecology. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 588-595

Abstract:

An alternative of crop adaptation to climate change may be achieved by extension in new ecosystems. In this circumstance, stimulation of growth hormones should be advocated. Therefore, a fertilizer trial of wheat (Triticum durumdesf) was set in rainfed condition of the south of Côte d’Ivoire. The experiment design was a randomized complete bloc design with three replications including seven pots as treatments. A rate of 200 kgha-1 as NPK (15, 22, 22) basal fertilizer was applied. The rates of 50 kgha-1 as magnesium sulfite and 10 kgha-1 of zinc sulfite were used for the treatments NPKMg, NPKZn, NPKMgZn, Mg and Zn. A rate of 35 kgha-1 was also applied as urea at tillering and bosting stages respectively. The results showed highest grain yield in a range of 3.47 tha-1 for the treatment NPK. A negative impact of cations on photoperiod and a depressing effect of low rate of K was deemed responsible of low tillering and the limited plant high. Presuming effects of Zn and Mg were only limited to the reproductive stage without affecting the grain yield because of low development of the rhizosphere. There is chance to increase the grain yield of 3.47 tha-1 recorded by for the treatment NPK when increasing the rate of K for improving wheat production in the forest zone of south Côte d’Ivoire.

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Zaki, H.E.M., Mahmoud, A.M.M., Abd El- Ati, Y.Y., Hammad, A.M. and Sayed, R.M.M (2016). Studies on pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth and productivity under agroforestry system: 1. Vegetative growth, chemical composition and nodulation status of pea under alley cropping system with two types of trees. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 596-605

Abstract:

Production of vegetables under agroforestry system says that it is a good alternative especially under limited resources. This study was undertaken to find out the possibility of growing pea with highly adaptable two tree species; the Egyptian river hemp (Sesbania sesban) and white lead tree (Leucaena leucocephala) under two levels of nitrogen fertilizer. The results indicated that plant fresh and dry weights of pea were significantly affected with alley cropping treatments. Moreover, pea allied with Sesbania+1/2 recommended dose (RD) of N produced the heaviest plant fresh and dry weight. While, sole pea plants inoculated with Rhizobium treatment followed by pea allied with Sesbania+1/2 RD gave the highest number of main branches. Alley cropping system with Sesbania or Leucaena+1/2RD showed the best result for the total nitrogen %. Treatment with Rhizobium followed by growing with Sesbania+1/2 RD produced the highest N uptake values. On the other hand, pea with Sesbania+1/2 RD gave the highest % of K uptake. For nodulation status, alley cropping system of pea with Sesbania and Leucaena plus half of nitrogen RD significantly increased the pea fresh and dry nodules weight as well as the number of nodules compared to the other treatments. Thus, it appears that alley cropping system has great benefits on peas but still moderate N fertilization is the key factor in defining the productivity and sustainability of the production in Aswan, Egypt.

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AL-Tyeb, L. E. (2016). Behavior of Goal Programming with Heavy Tailed Distribution. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2(4): 606-611

Abstract:

Goal programming (GP) is an extension of linear programming (LP). The GP is an important technique for decision makers. Goal programming technique has a useful advantage in minimize the unwanted deviations between the achievement of goals and their aspiration levels. The purpose of regression analysis is to expose the relationship between a response variable and predictor variables. In real applications, the response variable cannot be predicted exactly from the predictor variables. The response for a fixed value of each predictor variable is a random variable. For this reason, the behavior of the response may be summarized for fixed values of the predictors using measures of central tendency. Typical measures of central tendency are the average value (mean), the middle value (median) or the most likely value (mode). The main purpose for this study is to compare between two statistical method and one operation research method when these method used to estimate multiple linear regression equation with heavy tailed distribution. A simulation study based on four performance indexes to evaluate the performance of the three methods. The study suggested root mean square error with respect to the median (RMSEM) to use as a criteria to compare between three methods under consideration.The aim of this study is to study the behavior of goal programming and OLS, ALV to estimate the parameter of simple linear regression.

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