Volume (3), Issue (3), (2017): 89-132

Oladele, J.O., Oyewole, O.I., Bello, O.K. and Oladele, O.T. (2017) Assessment of Protective Potentials of Ficus Exasperata Leaf on Arsenate-Mediated Dyslipidemia and Oxidative Damage in Rat’s Brain. Journal of basic and applied Research, 3(3): 89-94

Abstract:

This study investigated the protective potentials of methanolic leaf extract of Ficus exasperata on sodium arsenate-mediated dyslipidemia and oxidative damage in the brain of rats. Twenty-eight rats were sorted into four groups containing seven rats each. Group A (control) received distilled water while 10 mg/kg bw of arsenic in form of sodium arsenate (As) was administered intraperitoneally to groups B, C and D. Group C and D were treated with oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw of F. exasperata leaf respectively for 14 days. Arsenate administration resulted in dyslipidemia as shown by significant elevation (P<0.05) in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk ratio while it also reduced HDL-cholesterol in the rats. It also causes lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage in the brains of the rat with significant elevation of malondialdehyde level and decrease in levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione s-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. Histology of the cortex region of brain of the rats treated with arsenate showed abnormal neuronal morphology with neuronal degeneration and necrosis. However, treatment with F. exasperata significantly reversed and attenuated the arsenatemediated biochemical alterations. We demonstrated in this study that F. exasperata leaf effectively protects against arsenate-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative damage in rat’s brain.

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Pekkolay, Z., Soylu, H., Balsak, B.Ö.T., Güven, M., Tuzcu, A.K. (2017). Metformin Intoxication, Lactic Acidosis and Death. Journal of basic and applied Research, 3(3): 95-96

Abstract:

Metformin is an oral antidiabetic agent used as in the treatment of T2DM. A fearsome complication of the use of metformin is lactic acidosis. A nineteen-year-old woman was unconscious and cyanotic in her home. It has been found that about 50 grams of metformin is taken for the purpose of suicide. Glaskow Coma Scale 4/15, Blood Pressure: 70 / 30mmHg, lactic acidosis was detected. Despite the hemodialysis procedure, the patient passed away. Metformin, the keystone of diabetes treatment, inhibits gluconeogenesis, improve insulin resistance, and is excreted in the kidneys without being metabolized. Metformin rarely makes lactic acidosis. High doses of metformin and renal impairment facilitate the formation of lactic acidosis. There is a direct relationship between the degree of lactic acidosis and mortality. Lactic acidosis is thought to be due to the accumulation of lactate by the inhibition of gluconeogenesis. Metformin intoxication may kill the patient through lactic acidosis.

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Ali, A.E., Mohamed, H.A., Hamed, K.E., El Habien, R.Y. and Zorgani, N.G. (2017). Evaluation of Celest Top® 312.5 FS (fludioxonil 25g/L; difenoconazole 25g/L; thiamethoxam 262g/L) to control insect pests and seedling diseases on wheat at River Nile and Kassala States, Sudan. Journal of basic and applied Research, 3(3): 97-100

Abstract:

The experiments were conducted at Hudiaba research station farm (River Nile State) and New halfa Research Station (Kassala State) for two consecutive seasons 2014/015 and 2015/016, to evaluate the effectiveness of Celest Top 312.5 FS (flowable solution) as seed dressing to control insect pests and seedling diseases of wheat. Celest Top 312.5 FS was used at the rates of 1.25ml/kg seed, 1ml/kg seed and 0.75 ml/kg seed with its respective (standard) check 1.5g/kg Raxil2% WS (tebuconazole) + 0.5g/kg Gaucho70% WS (imiddacloprid) and untreated control. In contrast, Celest Top 312.5 FS at the rates of 1ml/kg and 1.25ml/kg seed significantly (P≤ 0.01) reduced green bug and termite infestation and seedling diseases of wheat and increased wheat grain yield compared to the untreated and standard. In vitro evaluation of Celest Top 312.5 FS against Pythium spp. revealed that the pesticide containing fungicidal components significantly inhibited the mycelia growth of test pathogen. Results of residue analysis showed that no detectable levels of Celest Top 312.5 FS were found in all samples of wheat collected at harvest.

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Benbelgacem, F.F., Bellag, O.A., Ahmad, A.Z., Noorbatcha, I.A., Salleh, H.M. (2017). Palm Oil Mill Effluent Metagenome for Cellulose-Degrading Enzymes. Journal of basic and applied Research,3(3): 101-106

Abstract:

Functional metagenomic approach incorporating metagenomic DNA library construction and high-throughput screening has proven to be a powerful tool for identifying novel biocatalysts (Wouters et al. 2014). Culture enrichment strategies are additional pre-screening methods employed to provide an attractive means of enhancing the screening hit rate. In this work metagenomic DNA libraries were generated from Malaysian palm oil mill effluent (POME) microorganisms. Three different samples, namely fresh, ambient-cooled and anaerobic POME microorganisms were inoculated in a medium under controlled temperature, light and pH conditions, and in the presence of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for short incubation time in order to allow growth of microorganisms with cellulose-degrading capabilities. Quantitative and qualitative metagenomic DNA tests indicate the presence of high number of microbes in anaerobic POME compared to other samples which guided us to use this particular sample in further experiments. Titer test also showed that the number of enriched-library clones is 5 to 7 times higher than non-enriched anaerobic POME. The use of such a combination of enrichment strategy with metagenomics greatly improves the screening process for biocatalysts.

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Keel, C. and Pidgeon, A. (2017). Mediating role of self-compassion, emotional regulation on the relationship between, and Psychological Distress. Journal of basic and applied Research, 3(3): 107-113

Abstract:

Objective: University students experience higher levels of psychological distress compared to the general population. Clark and Watson (1991) introduced the Tripartite Model, proposing that psychological distress is operationalised by depression, anxiety and stress. Although self-compassion and emotional regulation have been shown to be associated with lower levels of psychological distress, the relationship between these variable has been vastly understudied. Method: The study employed a cross-sectional design using online questionnaires measuring emotional regulation, self-compassion and psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress). Data were collected from 89 Australian university students. Results: As predicted, bivariate correlations found that self-compassion, emotional regulation, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress), were all significantly correlated. Regression analyses highlighted that self-compassion significantly accounted for 44% of the variance of psychological distress; emotional regulation did not significantly account for variance of psychological distress. Following this, three single mediations based on significant correlations were conducted. Mediation analyses found that emotional regulation mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depression. However emotional regulation did not mediate the relationship between self-compassion and anxiety, or self-compassion and stress. Conclusions: The results highlight the mediating role of emotional regulation on self-compassion and depression. Future research is warranted to better understand the role of emotional regulation the depression–intrusion relationship, which may shed light on the clinical applicability of self-compassion targeted intervention for enhancing emotional regulation in university students experiencing depression.

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Aderounmu, A.F. and Oladele, A.T. (2017). Medicinal and Cultural Utilization of Spondias mombin and Rauwolfia vomitoria in Ejigbo Nigeria. Journal of basic and applied Research, 3(3): 114-119

Abstract:

Plants are crucial in human health and welfare especially in the developing African countries. Medicinal and cultural importance of Spondias mombin and Rauvolfia vomitoria were investigated in this study. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to extract information from Ninety nine (99) purposively selected informants in six communities. Resulting data was analyzed using simple frequency, utilization tables, charts and Pearson correlation analysis on SPSS package. Results showed that 93.9% and 97.0% of the respondents have lived in the area for more than five years and are familiar with the study plants respectively. Ethno-medicinal citations revealed stomach disorder (11) and Malaria (9) as the main uses of S. mombin while Malaria (18) and Hemorrhoid (10) are the main ailments managed with R. vomitoria. Non-medicinal uses include; live fences, shade for artisans, edible fruits, carving farm implements handles, local building construction and dye production. There is a significant positive correlation (0.637) in the utilization awareness of S. mombin and R. vomitoria. The plants are perceived to be scarce in the wild while roots were mostly used for local medicine. The two plant species have potentials for development of affordable drugs to stem prevalent malaria infections. Domestication, sustainable harvesting and further research into conservation of the plant species are recommended.

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Sarkar, M., Bhowmick, S., Hussain, J., Hasan, M., Hossain, S. (2017). Hot Water Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves Protects Erythrocytes from Hemolysis and Major Organs from Oxidative Stress in vitro. Journal of basic and applied Research, 3(3): 120-126

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera (drumstick plant) is one of the most popular plants, which is believed to have enormous health benefits. Because of its health benefits, the demand of this plant is increasing day by day in different parts of the Indian subcontinent. Moringa leaves are used as a vegetable item in some parts of Bangladesh. In this study, we investigated the anti-hemolytic and antioxidative effects of hot water extract of M. oleifera leaves. The extract contained considerable amounts of different antioxidants: 𝛽-carotene (87.50±12.00 g/g of extract), and phytochemicals such as total polyphenols (53.52±1.10 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g of extract) and flavonoids (10.40±1.40 mg catechin equivalent/g of extract). The antioxidant potential of the extract was assessed by its DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-)-free radical scavenging activity, with M. oleifera leaf extract showing considerable antioxidative potentials. To evaluate the anti-hemolytic effect of the extract, freshly prepared erythrocytes were incubated with Fenton’s reagents in the absence or presence of the extract. We observed that erythrocytes pretreated with the extract exhibited a reduced degree of in vitro hemolysis. To support the antioxidative properties, tissues were treated with or without extract in the presence of Fenton’s reagents, and the levels of lipid peroxide (LPO) were determined. The Moringa oleifera leaf extract significantly decreased the levels of LPO in brain, liver and heart tissues. Our studies suggest that the Moringa oleifera leaf extract can mediate, at least partially, cytoprotective effects through scavenging of free radical, reduction of intracellular oxidative stress, and hence prevented the in vitro hemolysis of erythrocytes.

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Muhsin, S.A and Haddad, A.I. (2017). Effect of Phenol-Formaldehyde Bonding Agent on Acrylic Resin Impact Strength. Journal of basic and applied Research, 3(3): 127-132

Abstract:

Objective: evaluating the impact strength of heat-cured acrylic resin material after adding Phenol-formaldehyde (Novolac) as bonding agent material. Materials and Methods: Phenol-formaldehyde blocks were ground into powder, sieved to fine particles to be mixed up with the liquid monomer for 15 minutes, then filtered to be added to the powdered polymer, then the heat-cured acrylic resin was polymerized according to the manufacturer recommendation. Sample of 40 specimens were divided into four main groups (no= 10), Group (A) for heat-cured acrylic resin processed without any additive agent (control group); Group (B): heat-cured acrylic resin processed after adding of 2.5gm of Phenol-formaldehyde powder, Group (C): heat-cured acrylic resin processed with 5gm of Phenol-formaldehyde powder, and Group (D): heat-cured acrylic resin processed with 10gm of Phenol-formaldehyde powder. All the specimens were processed and polymerized by water-bath curing technique and using short curing cycle of 3h. The statistical analysis of variation (ANOVA) and (Games-Howell) test was used at P-value of (P≤0.05). Results: there was a statistically significant difference between the heat-cured acrylic denture base resins that polymerized without additives and that cured with adding of Phenol-formaldehyde as a chemical agent. Conclusion: the heatcured acrylic resin that polymerized with 2.5gm of Phenol-formaldehyde have the same effect on the impact strength as that polymerized with 5gm of Phenolformaldehyde.

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