Volume (5), Issue (1), (2019): 1-72

Joy-Telu, H-E and Moses, J.B. (2019). School and Home Influence on Alcohol Consumption Among School Children in Nigeria. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 5(1): 1-7

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to ascertain if school variable (peer group pressure) and home variables (family history of alcohol consumption, socio-economic status of the family, attitude of parent towards alcohol drinking and cultural norms/festivity) lead to alcohol consumption among adolescents and proffer solution to the social menace of alcohol consumption among secondary school children. The study was a descriptive research design with mixed methods of data collection involving questionnaire and interview schedule. A sample of 100 students out of a population of 130 students and 180 students each of the mid-class (SS 2 and JS 2) of the senior and basic secondary schools respectively were involved in the study. Four hypotheses were posited and tested using Chi-square and statistical decisions made. The instruments for the study were questionnaire and interview schedule with a reliability coefficient of 0.78 using Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient. It was found that parents are the major source of alcohol supply for many young Nigerians and children are often first introduced to alcohol in the family - home. Parents who drink alcohol are more likely to exhibit permissiveness towards alcohol use in their adolescent children. Based on the findings from this study, it could be concluded that children aged 10-16 years in Yenagoa metropolis of Nigeria, indulged in alcohol consumption regularly and in high quantity which is not good for their health. It is necessary that parents should present themselves as suitable role models in – order to guide their children against anti-social behaviours.

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Alhindi, M.A., Musallam, H.M. and Elhefian, E.A. (2019). Characteristics of Human Breast Milk Based on Infant’s Gender. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 5(1): 8-10

Abstract:

Human milk is a complex fluid, which contains a number of constituents such as fats, proteins and vitamins, in addition to other compounds. These nutrients are needed for infant protection against infections and diseases. This study was undertaken to evaluate some physicochemical properties and biochemical constituents content of human milk samples (based on the gender of the breast feeding infant). This includes acidity, density and viscosity, as well as lactose, protein, calcium and magnesium contents. Results showed that the highest value of viscosity as well as the highest percentages of protein and acidity were recorded for human breast milk for a boy (2.212 cP, 1.237% and 0.02% respectively) while close values for density and other biochemical contents were recorded for both types of samples. However, only the change in viscosity was found to be significant (p˂0.05). Variations in some properties of human milk depending on the infant' sex could be of benefit for developing infant formula taking infant’s gender into consideration.

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Korhonen, H.T., Sepponen, J., Lindeberg, H., Koskinen, N. (2019). Effect of Feeding Intensity on Metabolic Maintenance, Reproduction and Welfare in Blue Fox (Vulpes lagopus). Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 5(1): 11-20

Abstract:

The purpose was to evaluate effects of feeding intensity on metabolic maintenance, reproduction and welfare in blue fox vixens. Study groups were: Group 1: heavy slimming. Ad libitum feeding during September-November, aimed to produce extremely fat animals. Heavy slimming before breeding season, aim to have animals with normal breeding body condition. Group 2: maintenance of condition. Restricted feeding 35-45% from the level of Group 1 during September-November. Natural slimming to normal breeding condition. Group 3: Rising condition. Restricted feeding 50-60% from the level of Group 1 during September-November. Aim was to produce lean animals. Rising body condition was before breeding season, aimed to have animals with normal breeding body condition. Blood samples were taken regularly throughout the study. Results showed that urea concentration varied seasonally (P<0.001). Concentrations were lowest during winter period. In Group 1, heavy slimming before mating season lowered urea concentration significantly (P<0.001). During autumn period, concentration was lowest in Group 3 because of pronounced feeding restriction. Creatinine levels were highest during summer period in all groups. Glucose concentration varied seasonally in all groups (P<0.001). Intensive feeding clearly affected on triglycerides, glucose and insulin levels (P<0.01). Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) levels were highest during autumn period. Leptin concentration was highest in December in all groups. Thereafter, it clearly declined towards summer (P<0.001). Concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) was highest in Group 1. Prolactin levels were same in all groups until insemination. During pregnancy, levels increased similarly in groups. After whelping, prolactin levels were low (P<0.05) in Group 1 compared to other groups. Whelping result in Group 1was very low (P<0.001) compared to Groups 2 and 3. It can be concluded that feeding intensity essentially influences on hormonal levels and reproduction in blue fox vixens.

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Sahib, A.S., Abbas, S., Hasson, K and Mahmoud, M. (2019) Experience of Antibiotic Use and Resistance Among Pharmacy Students in the University of Kerbala. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 5(1): 21-30

Abstract:

Introduction: Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria develop the ability to defeat the drugs designed to kill them. Antibiotics dispensing without prescription, misuse of antibiotics are considered as a major cause of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial resistance causes extra health care cost and leads to loss of productivity; also patients with resistant infections are more expensive and difficult to treat. Many strategies and steps can be taken at all levels of society to reduce the impact and limit the spread of resistance. The pharmacist has effective role in averting antibiotic resistance. Methodology: A questioner form was designed to assess student’s knowledge, attitude and perception about antibiotic use and resistance, 146 pharmacy students from the fourth stage and fifth stage in the University of Kerbala, were selected randomly. Result: A total number of 146 students, (70 from the fourth stage and 76 from the fifth stage) were participated in this study of both sexes (30 male: 116 female). About 82% of students understand what the antibiotic resistance term mean. 87% of students knew that antibiotics shouldn’t be used for common cold. 84% of students did not stop taking antibiotics until taken all of the antibiotics as directed. 34% of students usually consult a doctor before starting an antibiotic. Less than 23% of students did not stop taking antibiotic when any side effect appears. Conclusion: Based on results obtained in this study that done in Kerbala University / College of Pharmacy it has been concluded that students were of high level in knowledge and perception about antibiotics use and resistance, but the students were of lower level in attitudes, lower percent of student have good attitude toward antibiotics use.

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Jha, J.P., Malhotra, V., Jha, O.P., Gupta, S. (2019) Study of Lipid Profile in Diabetes Mellitus with and without Hypertension. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 5(1): 31-36

Abstract:

Introduction Alterations in the lipid metabolism have been reported in the subject of diabetes mellitus. They may be influenced by the presence of hypertension. Aims The present study was undertaken to estimate the serum lipids profiles of diabetics with and without hypertension. Study design The study design is experimental with comparative study method, Methodology The sample size taken is 80 which is divided into four groups as A group of 20 healthy individuals of age 20-70 years, other B group of 20 diabetic patients without Hypertension, other C group of 20 hypertensive patients without diabetes and the rest 20 diabetic patients along with hypertension of age 20-70 years of D group. They were matched with respect to various lipid parameters such as total cholesterol, Triglycerides, β: α lipoprotein ratio etc. with control group A. Place and duration of study: the study took place at Santosh group of institutions between August 2013 to August 2016. Result The serum cholesterol levels were significantly higher in hypertensives without diabetics and in diabetics with hypertension as compared to normal controls. No significant difference in the serum triglyceride level was observed among various groups in this study. The β: α lipoprotein ratio was found to be affected in all the groups as compared to controls with maximum ratio in diabetics without hypertension and in hypertension without diabetes. Patients who were suffering from diabetes and hypertension were at a maximum risk of developing atherosclerosis and its complications such as coronary artery disease. Diabetics with hypertension had significant higher levels of cholesterol as compared to that of without hypertension. The diabetics with hypertension had lipid abnormalities because of diabetic element in them rather than the hypertension. All the groups studied except the controls were found to be increasingly susceptible to the risk of atherosclerosis and its complications. This risk was found to be maximum in diabetics with hypertension rather than diabetics or hypertensive’s alone. Conclusion The need for right balanced diet, regular exercise and a stress free life is essential for prevention and management of diabetes and hypertension.

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Oyewole, O.I., Adewale, O.O., Adetunji, J.B. (2019) In vivo Effects of Black and Green Tea on Serum Lipid Profile and Cardiac Function in Hyperlipidemic Rats. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 5(1): 37-41

Abstract:

Objective: The study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of black and green tea consumption on serum lipid profile and cardiac function in hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: 24 male Wistar rats, average weight 125 g were sorted into four groups: A, B, C and D. Normal control group (A) were fed standard rat chow; the remaining three groups (B, C and D) received rat chow supplemented with 2% (w/w) cholesterol to induce hypercholesterolemia. Group C and D were administered 40 mg/ml of black and green tea respectively while group B (hyperlipidemic control) were not treated. The feeding and tea administration lasted 6 weeks. Results: Significant reduction in body weight and heart weight index was recorded in rats administered black and green tea compared with the untreated group. Black and green tea consumption also caused significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk ratio accompanied with elevated HDL-cholesterol compared to untreated group. Significant alterations in cardiac marker enzymes: creatine kinase (CK), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were also observed in serum and heart homogenates of untreated hyperlipidemic rats which were normalized in rats administered the teas. These results are synonymous with decreased risk of atherosclerosis and protective potential on cardiac function by green and black tea. Conclusion: We conclude in this study that regular intake of black and green tea might be useful in treatment of obesity and prevention of cardiovascular complications arising from hyperlipidemia.

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Onyenibe, N.S., Victoria, D.O., Udogadi, N.S. (2019) Ameliorative Effect of Fermented Pentaclethra macrophylla (African oil bean seed) on High Fat Diet and Sucrose Drink Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Male New Zealand Rabbits. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 5(1): 42-48

Abstract:

The consumption of nutraceuticals has become progressively popular in improving health, as well as disease treatment and prevention. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ameliorative effect of fermented Pentaclethra macrophylla (African oil bean) seed on high fat diet and sucrose drink induced metabolic syndrome in male New Zealand rabbits. All experimental procedures were carried using standard methods. A total of twenty (20) rabbits were used for this study, the animals were randomly grouped into five (5) groups with four (4) animals each. Metabolic syndrome risk factors obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia were determined. HFD+30%SUC had over 1500g body weight (bwt) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) 239.50±5.74 mg/dl relative to the normal control with 1000±6.73g and 77.00±5.94 respectively whereas ND+30%SUC had lower FBS (l172.50±2.52) compared to HFD+30%SUC. There was a significant p<0.05 increase in body weights in treated groups with 1274±11.19g, 1282.75±4.99g, 1285±4.76g and FBS levels in mg/dL198.25±4.79, 198.75±8.06, 200±3.74 in rabbits compared to untreated HFD+30%SUC. Glycated hemoglobin, and α-Amylase were significantly p<0.05 elevated, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels were significantly p<0.05 reduced, lipid profile markers (HDL, TRIG & CHOL), electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium), urea and creatinine levels were significantly p<0.05 altered in HFD+30%SUC exposed group relative to the normal control and ND+30%SUC. However, dietary supplementation with fermented Pentaclethra macrophylla seeds caused weight, FBS, serum lipid reduction and potentiated electrolyte, urea and creatinine levels. Therefore, according to our results, fermented Pentaclethra macrophylla seed is an excellent nutraceutical and its consumption should be encouraged in modifying high fat and elevated intake of sucrose in rabbit.

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Al-Anbari, H., Al-Hilali, K., Sughair, MH. (2019). Comparable Efficacy of Azithromycin versus Ceftriaxone in Eradicating H. influenzae of Pediatric Nasal Carriers in Iraq. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 5(1): 49-54

Abstract:

Background: Haemophilus influenzae is a major cause of many serious infections. Nasal carriage contributes to upper respiratory tract infections. Its incidence in pediatric people is well detected worldwide. The guidelines for treatment include many classes of antimicrobial agents with graded response according to many factors. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out on 200 pediatric patients with an age range of 1-5 years, divided equally into 2 groups. Nasal swab was taken from both groups prior to medication, looking for H. influenzae. Nasal carriers in each group were defined. Then, the 1st group carriers were then subjected to treatment with ceftriaxone parenterally for 5 days in a dose of 50 mg/kg/d, while the carriers in the 2nd one were treated with azithromycin 200 mg/d orally for 5 days. After the treatment course, 2 days were left, and then another nasal swab was taken from each carrier child. Results: The swabs taken from both groups reveled the ability of both treatment regimens to eradicate H. influenza, with slightly better effect for azithromycin. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study clearly demonstrated the beneficial effect of using a 3rd generation cephalosporin or azithromycin in the eradication of H. influenzae and confirmed the role of antimicrobial agents in targeting the expected upper respiratory tract infections accompanying H. influenzae nasal carriage.

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Jaafreh, M., Khleifat, K.M., Qaralleh, H., Al-limoun, M.O. (2019). Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Centeurea damascena Methanolic Extract . Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 5(1): 55-63

Abstract:

The family Asteraceae include large number of Centaurea species which have been applied in folk medicine. One of the family Asteraceae members is the Centaurea damascena which authentically been tested for its antibacterial and antioxidant activity as well as its toxicity. The aims of the study were to determine the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and toxicity of methanolic plant extracts of Centaurea damascene. The methanolic extracts were screened for their antibacterial activity against nine bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240, and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 11293, Pseudomonas aerugino and Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 and Salmonella typhi ATCC19430). The antibacterial activity was assessed by using the disc diffusion methods and the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) using microdilution method. The extracts from Centaurea damascene possessed antibacterial activity against several of the tested microorganisms. The MIC of methanol extract of C. damascene ranged from 60–1100 µg/mL. Free radical scavenging capacity of the C. damascena methanol extract was calculated by DPPH and FRAP test. DPPH radicals were scavenged with an IC50 value of 17.08 µg /ml. Antioxidant capacities obtained by the FRAP was 51.9 and expressed in mg Trolox g-1 dry weight. The total phenolic compounds of the methanol extracts of aerial parts, as estimated by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method, was about 460 mg GAE/ g. The phenolic contents in the extracts highly correlate with their antioxidant activity, (R2 = 0.976) confirming that the antioxidant activity of this plant extracts is considerably phenolic contents-dependent .

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Balay-odao, E.M., Marbella, I.M.V., Capili, M.U. (2019) Satisfaction of Student Nurses on the Academic Services in the School of Nursing. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 5(1): 64-72

Abstract:

Academic services are essential resources for student nurses in their studies. These services are institutional methods which include the structure, rules, and regulations in the provision of academic services. Instructional services are skills and tools to enhance the knowledge, skills and attitude of student nurses. School resources are provided to students to improve their knowledge, skills and attitude. The study determined the level of satisfaction of student nurses on the academic services in the school of nursing in terms of institutional method, instructional services, and school resources, the factors that influence the academic performance of student nurses, and the difference in the level of satisfaction of the student nurses on the academic services in the school of nursing when respondents are grouped according to gender and year level. The study utilized a descriptive-survey design involving 187, first year to fourth year Bachelor of Science in Nursing students. A self-made questionnaire was used as the data gathering tool in this study. The findings of the study showed that students are moderately satisfied with the academic services rendered in the school of nursing. Teachers’ commitment and student time management influence student nurses’ satisfaction on the academic services in the school of nursing. Furthermore, the findings showed that gender, and year level has no significant effect on the level of satisfaction of student nurses on the academic services in the school of nursing. The findings imply the need for a continuous innovation of the academic services in the school of nursing.

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