Volume (6), Issue (1), (2020): 1

Oladele, J.O., Adewale, O.O., Oyewole, O.I., Gbolagbade, A., Oyeleke, M.O. (2020) Assessment of the Protective Effects of Vitamin C and E on Cypermethrin-induced Nephrotoxicity and Electrolyte Imbalance in Wistar Rats. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 6(1): 1-6

Abstract:

Cypermethrin is a potent pyrethroids insecticide causing different pathological features when exposed to mammal. Vitamins are used as nutrient supplements and in clinical studies as medical intervention in some disease conditions. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of vitamin C and E on Cypermethrin induced nephrotoxicity in wistar albino rats. Twenty-eight (28) wistar albino rats were sorted into four groups of seven rats per groups were used in this study. Group A serves as the control and received distilled water orally. Group B, C and D were administered 25mg/kg body weight cypermethrin orally. Group C and D were treated daily with 40mg/kg body weight vitamin C and 20mg/kg body weight vitamin E respectively by oral administration while group B was left untreated for 14 days. Cypermethrin significantly (P<0.05) induced nephrotoxicity as characterized with significant increased (P<0.05) in the serum levels of Urea, uric acid and creatinine. It also caused significant decrease (P<0.05) in renal total protein, albumin and globulin. Exposure to Cypermethrin induced electrolyte imbalance in rats with significant increase in serum chloride ion, potassium ion and significant decrease in serum level of sodium ion and bicarbonates. Histological results revealed that cypermethrin caused distortion in histoarchitecture of the kidney characterized by lesion of glomerulus, damaged Bowman’s capsule, degenerated and vacuolated renal tubules. Taken together, vitamin C and E significantly reverse all these alterations and offer protection to the kidney membrane.

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Alqudah, A., Ja`afreh, W. (2020) 3,4-Dichlorobenzoic acid biodegradation by the Edwardsiella tarda: Effect of Some Growth Conditions. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 6(1): 7-14

Abstract:

The biodegradation of 3,4-DiChlorobenzoic acid was investigated by using Edwardsiella tarda and it used 3,4-DCBA as sole carbon and energy source. Several concentrations of 3,4-D CBAs (1mM, 2mM ,3mM ,4mM and 5mM) were used. The highest rate of degradation of 3,4-D CBAs was obtained at a concentration (2mM). The experiments were included substrate concentration, temperature, pH, starvation, adaptation, carbon and nitrogen sources. The degradation ability was monitored through the release of chloride disappearance of the substrate and finally the growth of bacterial cells on that substrate. The optimal temperature and pH for the bacteria were 42ºC and 7.5, respectively. Adaptation of the cells on 3,4-DCBA for 48 hours and cells starvation for 24 hours and 48 hours increasing the initial degradation rate. The carbon sources affected the 3,4 –DCBA degradation differently from that on chloride and cell mass production. Nitrogen sources supplied (yeast extract, L-proline, casein, NH4, K-Nitrate, arginine, urea and glycine). Urea and casine caused a repression in 3,4-DCBA degradation. Catechol 1,2 dioxygenase activity was found to be present in cell free extracts suggesting that 3,4-DCBA is catabolized by ortho-ring cleavage pathway.

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Albzeirat, M.K., Zulkepli, N.N., Qaralleh, H. (2020) A Vision to Face Covid-19 pandemic and Future Risks Through Artificial Intelligence. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 6(1): 15-20

Abstract:

Coved-19 pandemic is spreading fear among the world in several aspects such as health, economic, international relations, political stability, and social stability. It emerged suddenly and attacked the world in a short period without warning. Details about the virus such as the source, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis and treatment are still incomplete. Subsequently, more than one million people have died and huge economic losses. In order to avoid this issue in future, this paper aims to focus on artificial intelligence in predicting and tracking viral pandemic Disease and to control similar future risks using artificial intelligence, algorithms and cognitive fission theory.

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Mohammed, H.A and Ali, A.E. (2020). Evaluation of Aqueous Extracts of Neem kernels and leaves for the control of spotted stem borer Chilo partellus Swinhoe, in sorghum at New Halfa, Sudan. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 6(1): 21-24

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts of Neem kernels (NK) and Neem leaves (NL) on the incidence and damage of spotted stem borer in sorghum during 2011/12-2012/13 seasons at New Halfa Research Station farm. Sorghum variety Tabat was used. The experiment was laid in a RCB design with four replicates and seven treatments. These were: NK at kg/ 30 and 40 Liter of water, NL at kg/15 and 20 Liter of water, Furadan 10% G at 15kg/F and Malathion 57% EC at 2L/F as standard and the untreated control. A liquid soap was added to Neem treatments as an emulsifying agent. Three sprayings were applied using knapsack sprayer starting two weeks after emergence with 10 days intervals. Data on percent dead heart, percent leaf damage plants, percent stem tunneling, number of borer holes per plant and grain yield were recorded. Results indicated that, all treatments were highly significantly (P>0.001) reduced stem borer damage and increased the grain yield compared to the untreated one. NK at kg/ 40 L of water was the best in reducing stem borer damage and increasing grain yield comparable to the standard treatment Furadan 10% G at 15 Kg/F.

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Ayipey, P. (2020). Impact of Covid-19 on Ginger Export, a Root Crop as Traditional Remedy for Covid-19. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 6(1): 25-31

Abstract:

The World Health Organization (WHO) since its foundation in 1946 has worked for the improvement of global health and the fight against infectious diseases by bringing out preventive measures to curb the spread of viruses whiles working on approved medicines and vaccines to help heal infected people. The novel Covid-19 pandemic has currently affected almost every country in the world, and it has greatly caused an effect on the global economy at large. Whiles the World Health Organization is bringing out the specific initiative to address this targeted global health problem, many individuals are also relying on traditional methods to immune their systems as well as protect themselves from contracting the Covid-19 virus. Although, the WHO has declared that these traditional remedies are not certified and approved by the organization, the uncertainties and spontaneous reaction of people not to become victims of the Covid-19 virus employs these traditional remedies, although they are not certain about its effectiveness. This study explores the increase demands for ginger as a root crop to help boost the immunity of the body against the Covid-19 virus, as well as reveal the impact of the Covid-19 on the global economic export of ginger in the global market. The increase in the prices and demand of ginger in some countries in the world can fundamentally be credited to two fundamental factors. The first being the effect of the novel Covid-19 pandemic on international ginger trade, whereby there was an increase in the logistics costs since most borders and countries were under lockdown, and workers were self-isolating themselves from contracting the virus which in the long term resulted to the limited supply of goods for export. The second factor is attributed to the hearsay and tittle-tattle in some countries that ginger can be used as a therapeutic for the novel Covid-19 virus. This article has revealed that the Covid-19 pandemic has affected the export of ginger from China. China which happens to the largest international export country to export ginger globally experienced a decrease in the quantity of ginger exportation during the first quarter of 2020. However, the inability of China to export enough ginger has paved way for other countries such as Peru, Indonesia and Germany, Spain, and Turkey to increase in the export of their ginger to other countries. The increase in demand of ginger in this Covid-19 season is attributed to the ideology of consuming such root crop to boost the immune system of people. This paper argues that irrespective of the WHO unapproved use of ginger as a traditional remedy to cure the virus, people are still using this indigenous skill of herbal healing to boost their immune system. This provides reassurance and safety to people’s health. This assurance of the benefits derived from ginger consumption has led to an increase in demand for it, which has also increased in the global economic impact on ginger export.

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Prasad, B., Narang, A. Mishra, M. (2020). Recovery and Screening of α-Galacotosidase Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Dairy Products. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 6(1): 32-37

Abstract:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in fermented foods has long been consumed by humans without any obvious adverse effects. Therefore, they are potent candidates as vehicles for the delivery of digestive enzymes. Stachyose, a tetrasaccharide, is believed to contribute to flatulent properties of soyabeans that limit their use for human consumption. LAB including some Lactobacillus plantarum, L.fermentum,L. buchneri and reuteri hydrolyze α- galactosides or non-digestible carbohydrates into digestible carbohydrates during fermentation. These bacteria are therefore a source of α -galactosidase. If soy milk could be fermented with these microorganisms that utilize stachyose either to produce acid or to hydrolyze it to mono and disaccharides, the product thus prepared ought to be less flatulent and therefore, more acceptable. In present study, total 27 lactic acid bacteria were recovered selectively on MRS agar from the various milk and milk products. All the 27 isolates were characterized morphologically and the colonies were white to cream and gram positive. Out of 27 LAB only 5 isolates were found to be positive for α- galactosidase enzyme. α-galactosidase activities were determined by using p-NPG. All 5 α- galactosidase producer were further subjected for various biochemical characterization for partial identification and were catalase negative, and casein hydrolysis, sugar fermentation, nitrate reduction positive. Reduction of α- galactosides by the 5 selected isolates were evaluated. The isolate, RLAB α-4, CLAB α-14, CLAB, CLAB α-20 α-18 and WLAB α-25 degraded 67.56 %, 45.94%, 54.05%, 70.27%, and 64.86% α- galactosides respectively. CLAB α-20 degraded maximum concentration of α- galactosides and RLAB α-14 degraded least concentration of α- galactosides.

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Chandy, J., Jacob, A.M., Cherian, S. (2020) Evaluation of Bioconcentration of Organophosphate Pesticides Monocrotophos and Quinalphos in Freshwater Fish Channa striatus. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 6(1): 38-44

Abstract:

Fish bioconcentration factors (BCF) are used for the prediction of the environmental effects of new chemicals and some studies have suggested that they can be predicted from the Physico-chemical properties of the chemical. The rigorous use of pesticides resulted in the dispersal and persistence of pollutants throughout the ecosystem. Pesticides contamination in the aquatic ecosystem has become one of the most staggering issues due to their detrimental effect on public health and the environment. This study aimed to investigate the bioconcentration factor of pesticides monocrotophos and quinalphos in three tissues (skin, muscles, gills) of the fish Channa striatus for 21 days, of the three analyzed tissues of monocrotophos exposed fish, gill accumulated highest concentration of (0.033 mg kg-1) while muscles (0.012 mg kg-1) at the lowest, whereas the concentration of quinalphos was maximum (0.98mg kg-1) in liver and minimum (0.074 mg kg-1) in muscle. Results showed that the effect of pesticide differs from tissue to tissue. However, the levels exceeded maximum detection limits as recommended by U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory, Denver, Colo. Hence it is suggested that the fish containing pesticide residues beyond permissible limit should be avoided for food purposes.

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Das, S., Ghosh, B., Basu, S. (2020). Formulation and Evaluation of Pulsatile Drug Delivery System of Atenolol. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 6(1): 45-49

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was formulation and evaluation of pulsatile release tablets of Atenolol. A tablet system consisting of cores which was coated with layers of swelling and rupturable coatings. Cores containing Atenolol as model drug were prepared by direct compression with appropriate ratios of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose and then coated sequentially with different ratios of an inner swelling layer containing HPMC and an outer rupturable layer of Ethyl Cellulose. The effect of level of swelling layer and rupturable coating was investigated. The different formulation press coated by using different weight ratios of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) / Ethyl Cellulose (EC) / both HPMC and EC. The optimum result was achieved in formulation containing HPMC: EC weight ratios. The F3 batch achieved a highest burst release after the lag time which is applicable pulsatile drug delivery system of Atenolol.

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Maria Regina Femi, B., Malhija, N., Sherin Mary, T. and Kumaran, T. (2020). Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Inflorescence Sap Nutritional Characteristics and Health Effects. Journal of basic and applied Research in Biomedicine, 6(1): 50-52

Abstract:

Coconut is widely known as the tree of life. Every part of the tree is useful and therefore, coconut palm is an important economic crop of the local people. Neera is the exudate obtained from the unopened inflorescence of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). It is healthy and therapeutic drink since it is rich in Vitamin C, has more food calories than milk, fights diabetes, cancer, electrolyte deficiency and even hair fall. Neera is rich in minerals and vitamins and it contains glucamic acid necessary for protein synthesis. It aids in digestion health. Neera contains vitamins (A and C), which have anti - oxidant properties thereby preventing damage or death of cells. Neera contains acids nicotinic acid and riboflavin and also can be consumed by people suffering from diabetes since it has a low glycemic index and a low glycemic load. In the study discuss about chemical composition including total sugar, reducing sugar, ethanol and vitamins.

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