Decreases in plasma glucose, corticosterone and cholesterol levels following long-term consumption of stabilized rice bran in Albino Wistar rats

Main Article Content

Bushra Mehdi
Saida Haider
Ambreen Hasnat
Darakhshan Haleem


The present study was designed to investigate the effects of long term stabilized rice bran (SRB) rich diet consumption on neuroendocrine and behavioral responses in rats. Cubes of standard rodent diet were crushed and mixed with SRB in the ratio of 2:1 and 1:1(w/w) to prepare pellets of moderate and high amount of SRB rich diet respectively. Albino wistar rats randomly assigned as control, moderate and high amount of SRB groups were treated accordingly with the respective diet for 6 weeks. Weekly cumulative food intakes but not body weights were smaller in SRB rich diet treated during 1st to 5th week of treatment, which were normalized at the end of the treatment. Animals treated with high SRB rich diet exhibited a decrease in plasma glucose, corticosterone as well as cholesterol levels. Cholesterol levels were also decreased by moderate SRB rich diet. The results are discussed in context of antioxidant and antistress property of rice bran. It is suggested that presence of tocopherol, tocotrienol, ?-orynazol and other unsaponifiable compounds in rice bran may produce a reduction in the cholesterol and glucose levels. A decrease in corticosterone levels may be explained in terms of antistress effects of rice bran.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mehdi , B., Haider, S. ., Hasnat, A., & Haleem, D. (2018). Decreases in plasma glucose, corticosterone and cholesterol levels following long-term consumption of stabilized rice bran in Albino Wistar rats. Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, 4(4), 71-76. Retrieved from
Journal of Basic And Applied Research


Arab, F., Alemzadeh, I. & Maghsoudi, V. (2011). Determination of antioxidant component and activity of rice bran extract. Scientia Iranica C, 18 (6), 1402–1406.

Ardiansyah, H., Shirakawa, T., Koseki, K., Ohinata, K. & Hashizume, K. M. (2006). Rice bran improve blood pressure, lipid profile and glucose metabolism in stroke-prone hypertensive rats fraction. J Agr Food Chem, 54 (5), 1914-1920.

Carlezon, W.A.Jr., Magne, S.D, Parow, A.M., Stoll, A.L., Cohen, B.M. & Renshaw, P.F. (2005). Antidepressant like effects of uridine and omega-3 fatty acids potentiated by coadministration in rats. Biol Psychiat, 57, 243-250.

Cassano, W.J.J.R.,& D, mello, A.P. (2001). Acute stress-induced facilitation of the hypothalamic-pituatary adrenal axis: evidence for the roles of stressor duration and serotonin. Neuroendocrinol, 74,167-177.

Christine, M.S., Qinghua, S. & Saari, A.C. (2010). The Antioxidant Functions of Tocopherol and Tocotrienol Homologues in Oils, Fats, and Food Systems. J Am Oil Chem Soc, 87, 469–481. DOI 10.1007/s11746-009-1526-9

DeBoer, S.F., Slangen, J.L. & Van de Gugten, J. (1991). Effects of buspirone and chlordiazepoxide on plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in stressed and non-stressed rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 38, 299-308.

Demark-Wahnefried, W., Bowering, J. & Cohen, P.S. (1990). Reduced serum cholesterol with dietary change using fat-modified and oat bran supplemented diets. J Am Diet Asso,. 90, 223-229.

Dunn, A.J. & Berridge, C.W. (1990). Physiological and behavioral responses to corticotropin-releasing factor administration: is CRF a mediator of anxiety or stress responses? Brain Res Rev, 15, 71-100.

El-Hady, Abd. & Sahar, R. (2013). Effects of stabilized(rice bran, defatted rice bran and rice bran oil) on serum lipid parameters and blood glucose levels in rats. J Food and Dairy Sci, 4 (6), 269 – 280.

Farhan, M., Ikram, H., Kanwa,l S. & Haleem DJ (2014) Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress induced Behavioral Deficits: A Comparative Study in Male and Female Rats. Pak J Pharm Sci, 27(4), 879-884.

Faria, S.A.S.C., Bassinello, B.Z. & Penteado1.MV.C. (2012). Nutritional composition of rice bran submitted to different stabilization procedures. Braz J Pharmaceut Sci, 48(4), 651- 567.

Friedman, M. (2013). Rice Brans, Rice Bran Oils, and Rice Hulls: Composition, Food and Industrial Uses, and Bioactivities in Humans, Animals, and Cells. J Agric Food Chem, 61 (45), 10626–10641.DOI: 10.1021/jf403635v

Gerhardt, A.L., & Gallo, N.B. (1998). Full-fat rice bran and oat bran similarly reduce hypercholesterolemia in humans. J Nutr, 128, 865-869.

Haleem, D.J. (1992). Repeated corticosterone treatment attenuates behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) Tetraline in rats. Life Sci, 51, 225-230.

Haleem, D.J. (1993). Function specific supersensitivity of m-chlorophenyl piperazine-induced serotonergic neurotransmission in female compared to male rats. Life Sci, 52, 279-284.

Haleem, D.J. & Perveen, T. (1994). Brain regional serotonin synthesis following adaptation to repeated restraint stress. Neuro Report, 5, 1785-1788.

Haleem, D.J., Samad, N., Perveen, T., Haider, S. & Haleem, M.A. (2007) Role of serotonin 1-A receptors in restraint-induced behavioral deficits and adaptation to repeated restraint stress in rats. Int J Neurosci, 117, 243-257.

Hegsted, M., Windhauser, M.M., Morris, K.K. & Lester, S.B. (1993) Stabilized rice bran and oat bran lower cholesterol in humans. Nutr Res, 13, 387-398.

Iqbal, S., Bhanger, M.I. & Anwar, F. (2005). Antioxidant properties and components of some commercially available varieties of rice bran in Pakistan. Food Chem, 93, 265–272. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.09.024

Jabeen, B., Badaruddin, M., Ali, R. & Haleem, D.J. (2007). Attenuation of restraint-induced behavioral deficits and serotonergic responses by stabilized rice bran in rats. Nutr Neurosci, 10(1/2): 11–16.

Jacobs, B.L., Van Prag, H., Gage, F.H. (2000). Adult brain neurogenesis and psychiatry: a novel theory of depression. Mol Psychiat, 5(3), 262-269.

Kahlon, T.S., Chow, R.I., Sayre, R.N. & Betachart, A.A. (1992). Cholesterol lowering in hamsters fed rice bran at various levels, defatted rice bran and rice bran oil. J Nutr, 122, 513-519.

Kaup, R.M., Khayyal, M.T. & Verspohl, E.J. (2012). Antidiabetic Effects of a Standardized Egyptian Rice Bran Extract. Phytother Res, 27 (2), 264–271 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.4705 February 2013

Mattingly, D.A. (1962). Simple fluorimetric method for the estimation of free 11-hydroxycorticoids in human plasma. J Clin Pathol, 15,165-71.

Mattingly, D., Martin, H. & Tyler, C. (1989). Fluorimetric method for simultaneous estimation of cortisol, corticosterone and testosterone in plasma. J Clin Pathol, 42, 661-666.

Mehdi, B.J., Tabassum, S., Haider, S., Perveen, T., Nawaz, A. & Haleem, D. J. (2015). Nootropic and anti-stress effects of rice bran oil in male rats. J Food Sci Technol, 52(7), 4544-4550. DOI 10.1007/s13197-014-1489-1

Mehdi, B.J. & Haleem, D. J. (2018). Long-term administration of rice bran oil attenuates 5-HT-1A receptor dependent responses in rats. J Anim Res & Nutr, 3 (1:5), 1-6.

Minamiyama, Y., Yoshikawa, T., Tanigawa, T., Takahashi, S., Naito, Y., Ichikawa, H. & Kondu, M. (1994). Antioxidant effects of a processed grain food. J Nutr Sci Vit (Tokyo), 40(5), 467-477.

Minhajuddin, M., Beg, Z.H. & Iqbal, J. (2005). Hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tocotrienol rich fraction isolated from rice bran oil in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Food Chem Toxicol, 43(5), 747-53.

Moongngarm, A., Daomukda, N. & Khumpik, S. (2012). Chemical compositions, phytochemicals, and antioxidant capacity of rice bran, rice bran layer, and rice germ. APCBEE Procedia, 2 , 73 – 79 . doi: 10.1016/j.apcbee.2012.06.014

Most, M.M., Tully, R., Morales, S. & Lefevre, M. (2005). Rice bran oil, not fiber, lowers cholesterol in humans. Am J Clin Nutr, 81, 64-68.

Nantiyakul, N., Furse,S. Fisk, I., Foster, T. J., Tucker, G. & Gray, D. A. (2012). Phytochemical Composition of Oryza sativa (Rice) Bran Oil Bodies in Crude and Purified Isolates. J Am Oil Chem Soc, 89,1867–1872 DOI 10.1007/s11746-012-2078-y

Nystrom, L., Makinen, M., Lampi, A.M. & Piironen, V. (2005). Antioxidant activity of steryl ferulate extracts from rye and wheat bran. J Agric Food Chem, 53, 2503–2510.

Oluremi, O.I., Solomon, A.O. & Saheed, A.A. (2013). Fatty acids, metal composition and physico-chemical parameters of Igbemo Ekiti rice bran oil. J Environl Chem and Ecotoxicol, 5(3), 39-46, DOI:10.5897/JECE2012.0005

Perveen, T., Haider, S., Mumtaz, W., Razi, F., Tabassum, S. & Haleem, D.J. (2013). Attenuation of stress-induced behavioral deficits by lithium administration via serotonin metabolism. Pharmacol Reports, 65(2), 336-42. DOI: 10.1016/S1734-1140(13)71008-9

Qureshi, A.A., Peterson, D.M., Hasler-Rapaez, J.O. & Rapecz, J. (2001). Novel tocotrienols of rice bran suppress cholesterogenesis in hereditary hypercholesterolemic swine. J Nutr, 131, 223-230.

Qureshi, A.A., Sami, S.A. & Khan, A.K. (2002). Effect of stabilized rice bran, its soluble fiber fractions on blood glucose levels and serum lipid parameters in humans with diabetes mellitus Types I and II. J Nutr Biochem, 13, 175-177.

Rana, P., Vadhera, S. & Soni, G. (2004). Invivo antioxidant potential of rice bran oil (RBO) in albino rats. Ind J Phys Pharmacol, 48(4), 428-36.

Roth-Maier, D.A., Kettler, S.I. & Kirchgessner, M. (2002) Availability of vitamin B6 from different food sources. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 53, 171–179.

Rukmini, C. (2000). Bioactive in rice bran and rice bran oil. In: Bidlack WR, Omaye ST, Meskin MS and Tophen DKW, Editors, Phytochemicals as Bioactive agents, Technomic Publishing Company, Inc, 851 New Hooland Avenue, Box 3535, Lancaster, Pennsylvania : 213-240.

Samad, N. & Haleem, D.J. (2010). Anxiogenic and anorexiogenic effects of restraint stress in rats pretreated with buspirone or propranolol. Pak J Biochem Mol Biol, 43, 174-184.

Saunders, R.M. (1985). Rice bran: composition and potential food uses. Food Rev International, 1,465-495.

Seetharamaiah, G.S., & Chandrashekhara, N. (1989). Studies on the hypercholesterolemic activity of rice bran oil. Atheroscl, 78: 219-223.

Sharma, R.D. & Rukmini, C. (1987). Hypocholesterolemic activity of unsaponifiable matter of rice bran oil. Ind J Med Res, 85: 278-281.

Sharma,R., Srivastava, T. & Saxena, D.C. (2015). Int J Engin Res and Applic. 5 ( 5;Part -2),107-112.

Son, M.J., Rico, C.W., Nam, S.H. & Kang, M.Y. (2011). Effect of oryzanol and ferulic acid on the glucose metabolism of mice fed with a high-fat diet. J Food Sci, doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01907.x

Spears, J.K., Grieshop, C.M. & Fahey GC Jr. (2004). Evaluation of stabilized rice bran as an ingredient in dry extruded dog diets. J Anim Sci, 82(4), 1122-1135.

Sugano, M. & Tsuji, E. (1997). Rice bran oil and cholesterol metabolism. J Nutr, 127 (3), 521S-524S.

Truswell, A.S. (2002). Cereal grains and coronary heart disease. Eur J Clin Nutr, 56:1–14.

Willner, P. (1997). The chronic mild stress procedures as an animal model of depression: valid, reasonably reliable and useful. Psychopharmacol, 134, 371-377.

Wilson, T.A., Nicolosi, R.J., Woolfrey, B. & Kritchevsky, D. (2007). Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J Nutr Biochem, 18, 105–112.

Xu, Z., Hua, N. & Godber, S. (2001). Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, tocotrienols and ?-orynazol components from rice bran against cholesterol oxidation accelerated by 2,2-azobis (2-methyl propionamide) dihydro chloride. J Agr Food Chem, 49, 2077-2081.

Yoon, S.W., Pyo, Y.G., Lee, J., Lee, J.S., Kim, B.H. & Kim, I.H. (2014). Concentrations of tocols and ?-oryzanol compounds in rice bran oil obtained by fractional extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide. 63(1), 47-53.

Yoshino, G., Kazumi, T., Amano, M., Tateiwa, M., Yamasaki, T., Takashima, S., Iwali, M., Hatanaka, H. & Baba, S. (1989). Effects of gamma-orynazol on hyperlipidemic subjects. Curr Ther Res, 45, 543-552.