Introduction of Purple and Deep Purple F1 Carrot Hybrids to Egypt Showed High Antioxidant Activity and High Content of Total Flavonoids and Phenols

Main Article Content

Yasser Moustafa
Hussein Abd El-Aal
Mohamed Abd El-Wahab


For the improvement of carrot cultivation in Egypt and because of the deterioration of the local Egyptian purple carrots, two novel colored (Purple and Deep Purple) F1 carrot hybrids were introduced for the first time from Netherland to be evaluated and compared to the broadly cultivated yellow Japanese F1 hybrid (Kuruda) under the Middle Egypt sandy soil growing conditions. The horticultural evaluation showed that the two purple hybrids have elongated thick roots and good vegetative growth and gave a very high yield of roots in two successive winter seasons of 2013/2014 and  2014/2015. The Deep Purple hybrid exceeded the other two hybrids in almost all studied chemical and horticultural characteristics. It showed about three folds of leaves fresh weight/plant, two folds of both root fresh weight/plant and yield/m2 when compared with Purple and Kuruda hybrids. The chemical analyses declared that the Purple and Deep Purple hybrids have higher contents of all estimated components and the Deep Purple hybrid had the highest values of total flavonoids (about two folds), total phenols (about 5-6 folds), antioxidant activity percentage (7-8 times), and total soluble solids percentage (1.5-2 times) than that of the yellow F1 hybrid “Kuruda”. These newly introduced two Purple and Deep Purple F1 hybrids may be very promising in production and processing purposes of purple carrots and good materials in carrot breeding programs in Egypt.  


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

Journal of Basic And Applied Research


Abdel Ati Y.Y., S.H. Gad El-Hak, A.A. Galal and Y.M.M. Moustafa (2000). Effect of some antioxidant compounds on some horticultural characters of four new F1 hybrids of tomato. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 25 (3): 1673-1692.

Alasalvar C., Grigor J.M., Zhang D.,Quantick P.C., Shahidi F. (2001). Comparison of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, antioxidant vitamins, and sensory quality of different colored carrot varieties. J. Agri. Food Chem. 49: 1410–1416.

Alves-Rodrigues A. and Shao A. (2004). The science behind lutein. Toxicology Letters 150: 57–83.

Arscott S.A., Tanumihardjo S.A. (2010). Carrots of many colors provide basic nutrition and bioavailable phytochemicals acting as a functional food. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. 9: 223–239.

Aruoma, O.L., Halliwell, B., Aeschbach, R. and Loligers, J. (1992). Carnosol and Carnosic acid. X enob. 22: 257-268.

Aruoma, I. O. (1998). Free radicals, oxidative stress and antioxidants in human health and disease. Journal of the American Oil. Chemists Society 75, 199–212

Braca, A., Tommasi, N.D, Baris L. D., Bizza, Polito, Mand Morelli, I. (2001). Antioxidant principles from Bauhinia tarapotensis. J. Nat. Prod. 64: 892-895.

Cruz C.D.; Castoldi F.L. (1991). Decomposição da interação genótipos x ambientes em partes simples e complexa. Revista Ceres, Viçosa, M.G. 38(219): 422-430.

Degen T., Buser H.-R., and Städler E. (1999). Patterns of oviposition stimulants for carrot fly in leaves of various host plants. J. Ch. Ecol. 25(1): 67-87.

Douds D., Nagahashi G., and Abney G. (1996). The differential effects of cell wall associated phenolics, cell walls, and cytosolic phenolics of host and non-host roots on the growth of two species of AM fungi. New Phytol. 133(2): 289-294.

Dwyer T., Sallis J.F., Blizzard L., Lazarus R. (2001). Relation of academic performance to physical activity and fitness in children. Pediatric Exercise Science 13: 225-237.

Edge, R., McGarvey, D. J. and Truscott, T.G. (1997). The carotenoids as anti-oxidants--a review. Journal of Pboiledochemistry and Pboiledobiology 41: 189-200.

El-sayed N.H., El-kubesy T.M., and Mabry T.J. (1994). Flavone glucosides and other constituents of the Egyptian variety of Daucus carota var. boissieri grown in Egypt. Bioch. Syst. Eco. 22(7): 762-772.

Frimmel F. and Lauche K. (1938). Heterosis -Versuehe an Karotten Z. P. Flanzenzuchtg. 22: 469-481.

Galal A.A., S.H. Gad El-Hak Y.Y. Abdel-Ati and Y.M.M. Moustafa (2000). Response of new tomato hybrids to some antioxidants and early blight. The 2nd Scientific Conference of Agricultural Sciences, Assuit, pp.: 673-686.

Gajewski M., Szymczak P., Elkner K., Dabrowska A., Kret A., Danilcenko H. (2007). Some aspects of nutritive and biological value of carrot cultivars of orange, yellow, and purple colored roots. Veg. Crops Res. Bull. 67: 149–161.

Gomez, K.A. and A.A. Gomez. 1983. Statistical procedure for agricultural research. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Grassmann J, Schnitzler WJ, Habegger R (2007) Evaluation of different coloured carrot cultivars on antioxidative capacity based on their carotenoid and phenolic contents. Int J. Food Sci and Nutr. 58: 603–611.

Halliwell, B., (2008). Are polyphenols antioxidants or pro-oxidants? What do we learn from cell culture and in vivo studies? Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 476:107-112.

Khalil N., Ashour M., Singab A. and Salama O. (2015). Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oils obtained from yellow and red carrot fruits cultivated in Egypt. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 10(2): 13-19.

Kilibarda V., Nanusevic N., Dogovic N., Ivanic R., and Savin K. (1996). Content of the essential oil of the carrot and its antibacterial activity. Pharmazie 51(10): 777-778.

Koley T.K., Singh S., Khemariya P., Sarkar A., Kaur C., Chaurasia S.N.S. and Naik P.S. (2014). Evaluation of Bioactive Properties of Indian Carrot (Daucus carota L.): A Chemometric Approach. Food Research International, Authenticity, Typicality, Traceability and Intrinsic Quality of Food Products 60: 76–85.

Leja M., Kami?ska I., Kramer M., Maksylewicz-Kaul A. Kammerer D. Carle R. and Baranski R. (2013). The Content of Phenolic Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity Varies with Carrot Origin and Root Color. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 68:163–170.

Lund E.D. (1992). Polyacetylenic carbonyl compounds in carrots. Phytoch. 31(10): 3621-3623.

Makkar, HPS.; Norvsambuu, T.; Lkhavatsere S and Becker, K. (2009). Plant secondary metabolites in some medicinal plants of Mongolia used for enhancing animal health and production. Tropicultura 27 159-167.

Nicolle C., Simon G., Rock E., Amouroux P. and Remesy C. (2004). Genetic variability influences carotenoid, vitamin, phenolic, and mineral content in white, yellow, purple, orange, and dark-orange carrot cultivars. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 129(4): 523–529.

Papas, A. M. (2002). In phytochemicals in Nutrition and Health, Meskin, M. S., Bidlack, W. R., Davies, A. J. and Omaye. S. T. New York: CRC Press, 61-78

Pereira G.A.M.; Oliveira M.C.; Oliveira A.J.M.; Fernandes J.S.C.; Júnior V.C.A.; Silva D.V.; Ferreira E.A. (2015). Performance of carrot genotypes at two Jequitinhonha Valley sites. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina 36(6): 4059-4070.

Quettier-Deleu C, Gressier B, Vasseur J, Dine T, Brunet J, Luyck M, Cazin M, Cazin JC, Bailleul F, Trotin F. (2000). Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) hulls and flour. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 72: 35-40.

Rao A.V. and Rao L.G. (2007). Carotenoids and human health. Pharmacological Research 55: 207-216

Salah, N., Miller, N.J, Paganga, G., Tigburg, L. Bolwell, G.P. and Rice- Evans, C.A. (1995). Polyphenolic flavanols as scavengers of aqueous phase radicals and as chain-breaking antioxidants. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 322, 339-346.

Singab A.B., Masuda Y., Okada Y., Mahran G., Khalifa T., and Okuyama T. (1995). Phenolic Constituents from Egyptian Carrot Fruits of Daucus carota var. boissieri. Nat. Med. 49(1): 96-107.

Singleton V.L. and Rossi, J.A., (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdicphosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 16: 144–158.

Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela – raventos, r.M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol. 299, 152-178.

Small E. (1978). A numerical taxonomic analysis of the Daucus carota complex. Can. J. Bot. 56:248-276.

Soengas, P., Sotelo, T., Velasco, P. and Cartea, M.E. (2011). Antioxidant properties of brassica vegetables. Functional plant science and Biotechnology 5: 43-55.

Stintzing F.C., Carle R. (2004). Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants, food, and in human nutrition. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 15: 19–38.

Sun T., Simon P.W., Tanumihardjo S.A. (2009). Antioxidant phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity of biofortified carrots (Daucus carota L.) of various colors. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57: 4142–4147.

van den Berg H., Faulks R., Granado H.F., Hirschberg J., Olmedilla B., Sandmann G., Southon S., Stahl W. (2000). The potential for the improvement of carotenoid levels in foods and the likely systemic effects. J. Sci. Food Agri. 80: 880–912.

Van Wyk B.E. and Wink M. (2004). Medicinal plants of the world: an illustrated scientific guide to important medicinal plants and their uses. Portland, Or. Timber Press.

Vavilov N.I. (1951). The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants. Chron. Bot. 13:1-366.

Wang C.C., Chang S.C., Inbaraj B.S., Chen B.H. (2010). Isolation of carotenoids, flavonoids and polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum L. and evaluation of antioxidant activity. Food Chem. 120: 184-192.

Yang R. Y., Tsou S.CS, Lee T.C., Hanson P. M. and Lai P.Y. (2005). America Agricultural cooperative projects, Taipei, Taiwan, 15th November 2005.